Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology <p>Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology (JSAT) is the international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journal in Open Journal System (online) published by&nbsp;Faculty of Science and Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Thailand. The journal is dedicated to publish original research in sciences and agricultural technology, but not limit to&nbsp; rapid reports, methods, review or comments, and short research reviews.</p> en-US (Dr. Sakuntala Saijai) (Wanchana Joobanjong) Wed, 17 Nov 2021 17:03:17 +0700 OJS 60 Coffivino process: A new era of coffee fermentation <p><span lang="EN-US">Developing the quality of fermentation is a crucial step in developing regular coffee to specialty coffee. Therefore, the Arabica Research Team, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Thailand, has invented a new fermentation technique called the “Coffivino process.” The aim is to create specialty coffee with a consistent level of quality in every season on an industrial level. This technique is inspired by wine fermentation technology, which combines the Semi-carbonic maceration process with the Yeast process. The new process matches the type and quantity of nutrients with the desired coffee cherry quality. Analyzing and controlling the quality of the entire fermentation process shows that the Coffivino process can create coffee with unique attributes, a wider variety of flavors, and higher intensity than the traditional process. This new technique would be the perfect solution for the fermentation of unhealthy quality coffee cherries on an industrial level and improve them to the sensory quality of specialty coffee.</span></p> Wanphen Jitjajoen Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology Mon, 15 Nov 2021 16:13:03 +0700 Sustainable packaging review: Recent materials and technology of smart biodegradable packaging <p><span lang="EN-US">Plastic is widely used as product packaging. The time-consuming degradation of old plastics leads to an increase in environmental pollution. Sustainable packaging has been recently developed to decrease the problem. Along with the need to identify product quality during storage and distribution, smart biodegradable packaging is developed. The packaging not only contains and protects the product but also provides information about the rapid change of product quality. This article reviews various smart biodegradable materials such as polymer, gelatin, chitosan, or starch materials and packaging production technologies such as extrusion, compression molding, and film casting technology. The latest innovations in smart packaging are labels that can sense and record changes in food products with unique signs on the packaging. This label can detect if there is a leak in the package; the indicator will show a change. The combination of materials according to utilize an abundance of natural resources of each country and affordable technology needs to be continuously developed to produce sustainable packaging that can be produced in many countries.</span></p> Muhammad Yusuf Rachmadianto, Bella Eka Syahputri, Sucipto Sucipto Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology Mon, 15 Nov 2021 16:42:01 +0700 Precision feeding management: New approach for better and more sustainable livestock production <p><span lang="EN-US">The demand for livestock products increases continuously and cannot be avoided; on the other hand, the total livestock production is still lower than the demand. The problem has recently become more complex, as the demand for livestock production must produce not only enough quantity but also high quality and healthy products for the consumers, create welfare for the livestock, be safe and friendly for the environment, and be highly sustainable for our next generation. All of these demands must be strongly related to the efficiency of feed utilization by the livestock, as feed is the major input for the livestock to maintain its life and production processes. Hence, precision feeding management must become an excellent approach to overcome all of the problems. Precision feeding is an attempt to maximize feed utilization by livestock by supplying the most appropriate nutrients to the livestock. Thus, in this approach, livestock is expected to consume less feed, digests, and metabolizes the feed very much effectively, and then excretes less waste.&nbsp; Those higher efficiencies of feed utilization by livestock must consequently give some advantages, including 1) minimize the amount of feed offered and reduce refusal feed by the livestock; hence the available feeds can be used to rear more the number of livestock to multiply livestock products, 2) increase livestock productivity with less feed cost, hence increase profit for the farmer, 3) reduce livestock waste including feces, urine and also ammonia and methane gas, hence make a better of environment, and finally, all of those advantages must lead more sustainable livestock production systems.</span></p> Marjuki Marjuki, Wittayakun Suntorn Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology Fri, 12 Nov 2021 22:10:44 +0700 The use of different levels of mulberry leaf meal with the broken-riceberry-based diet for semi-free range layers <p><span lang="EN-US">The present study investigated the effect of semi-free range laying hen fed dietary mulberry leaf meal mixed plus broken riceberry on egg performance, egg quality, and health. A randomized complete block experimental design was assigned, which block was a housing model (sunshine and shade). One hundred sixty laying hens (59 weeks of age) were divided into four groups in each house (20 birds of each group). The laying hens in each group were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments as follows: Diet 1, 2, 3, and 4, which were used broken riceberry as an energy source and mixed with 0, 2, 4, and 6 % sun-dried mulberry leaf meal, respectively. There were two consecutive 28 day periods to collect data based on egg production and egg quality. In the last period, the feces of each group were randomly collected to determine the number of microorganisms (total plate count, coliform, salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria). The results showed that there were no statistical differences among the four groups on egg production percentage, daily feed intakes, feed conversion ratio per 1 kilogram of egg weight, feed cost per 1 kilogram of egg weight, egg weight, albumen height, haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and the number of coliforms and lactic acid bacteria in feces (P&gt;0.05).&nbsp; However, the egg yolk color scores were the highest, followed by diet 3, 2, and 1, respectively (P&lt;0.05). The total plate count and salmonella in the feces of the laying hen fed with diet 4 were the lowest (P&lt;0.05). In addition, feed cost per 1 kilogram of egg weight of the group fed with diet 4 was slightly lower than other groups.</span></p> Nitima Chalermsan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology Mon, 15 Nov 2021 16:30:29 +0700 Holstein steers grazing two Bermudagrass varieties in hot and dry summer: forage quality and physiological responses of steers <p>The objective was to evaluate the forage quality of two varieties of Bermudagrass and some physiological traits of Holstein steers during two grazing periods in summer in an arid zone. Twenty-four Holstein steers (BW=200 ± 5 kg), 20 intact animals and 4 with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned for grazing to the Bermudagrass varieties Cross 1 (BC1, n=12) and Giant (BG, n=12) in two consecutive periods (P1 and P2) during summer-fall season in northwestern México. Based on THI estimation, climate in P1 was considered as severe heat stress and P2 as moderate heat stress. Levels of CP and ash were higher (P˂0.05) in BG during P2. Contents of NFD, AFD, and hemicellulose were higher (P˂0.01) in BG and P2 than BC1 and P1, respectively. Only fat content was higher (P˂0.05) in BC1 than BG. The <em>in vitro</em> digestibility of dry and organic matters showed no differences (P&gt;0.05) between varieties or periods. Respiration frequency and all body surface temperatures were higher during the first grazing period and at the afternoon, which agrees with the hottest grazing period and time of day. In conclusion, climatic conditions of the site of the study along with a poor quality of Giant and Cross 1 Bermudagrass varieties under grazing conditions, make the nutritional supplement recommended to reach satisfactory results for growing cattle.</p> Leonel Avendano, José Antonio Aguilar-Quiñonez, Marlene Joseph, Ulises Macías-Cruz, Juan Eulogio Guerra-Liera, Enrique Alvarez-Almora, Abelardo Correa-Calderón, Suntorn Wittayakun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology Fri, 12 Nov 2021 14:45:41 +0700