Biotransformation of Gingerol-Related Compounds in Ginger Rhizome Extract with Selected Species of Aspergillus, Monacus and Penicillium
Keywords:Aspergillus niger, Biotransformation, Fungal strains, -gingerol, Ginger extract, Mass spectrometry, -shogaol, Zingiber officinale Roscoe
The simultaneous biotransformation of gingerol-related compounds in ginger extract was performed by Aspergillus niger, A. flavas, Monacus purpureus and Penicilium funiculosum. Ginger metabolites and their substrates from the biotransformation were characterized by HPLC and HPLC-QTOF-MS. GM-1, GM-2 and GM-3 were converted from -gingerol and -shogaol, the main constituents found in the ginger extract, by both strains of A. niger after a 24-h fermentation period. Meanwhile, P. funiculosum was able to produce GM-2 and GM-3. The enzymatic reactions of the substrate molecules included the reduction of ketone groups as well as hydroxylation of terminal alkyl side chains. The levels of almost all gingerol-related compounds in the cultivation medium of all fungi, were decreased. There was no metabolite derived from the other compounds in the homologous series of gingerols and shogaols according to the mentioned reactions. In conclusion, the present study verified that simultaneous biotransformation was an effective technique to produce a variety of active metabolites and the crude extract from natural products can be applied to biotransformation studies without any isolation or purification steps for each substrate.
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