Strength, Durability and Bond Characteristics of Hybrid Glass Powder Concrete for Applying as an Overlay


  • Deepa Paul Department of Civil Engineering, APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala 695016, India
  • Bindhu K.R. Department of Civil Engineering, APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala 695016, India


Durability characteristics, Glass powder, Glass recycling, Mechanical properties, Supplementary cementing material


The potential utilization of fine glass powder (GP) as an eco-cementing material in concrete was experimentally investigated based on the strength, durability, and interface bond characteristics. The current research utilized hybrid GP, combining two micron-sized GPs with different particle sizes in equal proportions, to produce well- graded mixes of M30, M40, and M50. Strength and performance characteristics were experimentally investigated to arrive at a better partial replacement level of cement with hybrid GP. The shear strength of hybrid GP concrete cubes with substrates and repair material of different concrete mixes was also examined. Interface bond strength was evaluated by conducting the slant shear test on concrete prisms with the normal concrete as a substrate and hybrid GP concrete as an overlay. Analyses of the hardened properties revealed that 30% hybrid GP substitution produced the highest compressive strength. The GP concrete mixes exhibited improved performance in the durability indicators like sorptivity, chloride permeation, and moisture movement, but show a marginal increase in drying shrinkage. Tests on the application of hybrid GP concrete as an overlay concrete with conventional concrete as a substrate show a considerable improvement in the interface shear bond characteristics. The studies confirm the recyclability of waste GP as a partial substitute for cement in repair works.


Download data is not yet available.


Shayan A, Xu A. Performance of glass powder as a pozzolanic material in concrete: A field trial on concrete slabs. Cement and Concrete Research. 2006;36(3):457–68.

Sobolev K, Türker P, Soboleva S, Iscioglu G. Utilization of waste glass in ECO-cement: Strength properties and microstructural observations. Waste Management. 2007;27(7):971–6.

Schwarz N, Cam H, Neithalath N. Influence of a fine glass powder on the durability characteristics of concrete and its comparison to fly ash. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2008;30(6):486–96.

Dhir RK, Dyer TD, Tang MC. Alkali-silica reaction in concrete containing glass. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions. 2009;42(10):1451–62.

Khmiri A, Chaabouni M, Samet B. Chemical behaviour of ground waste glass when used as partial cement replacement in mortars. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2013;44:74–80. Available from:

Siad H, Lachemi M, Sahmaran M, Hossain KMA. Effect of glass powder on sulfuric acid resistance of cementitious materials. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2015;113:163–73. Available from:

Omran A, Tagnit-Hamou A. Performance of glass-powder concrete in field applications. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2016;109:84–95. Available from:

Kalakada Z, Doh JH, Chowdhury S. Glass powder as replacement of cement for concrete–an investigative study. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering [Internet]. 2019;0(0):1–18. Available from:

Patel D, Tiwari RP, Shrivastava R, Yadav RK. Effective utilization of waste glass powder as the substitution of cement in making paste and mortar. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2019;199:406–15. Available from:

Elaqra HA, Al-Afghany MJ, Abo-Hasseira AB, Elmasry IH, Tabasi AM, Alwan MD. Effect of immersion time of glass powder on mechanical properties of concrete contained glass powder as cement replacement. Construction and Building Materials. 2019;206:674–82.

Adesina A, Das S. Influence of glass powder on the durability properties of engineered cementitious composites. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2020;242:118199. Available from:

Paul D, Bindhu KR, Matos AM, Delgado J. Eco-friendly concrete with waste glass powder: A sustainable and circular solution. Construction and Building Materials. 2022 Nov;355:129217.

Elaqra HA, Alqahtani FK, Rustom R. Effect of curing temperature on mechanical behaviour of green concrete containing glass powder as cement replacement. Advances in Cement Research. 2021;33(10):458-68.

Olofinnade OM, Ede AN, Ndambuki JM. Experimental investigation on the effect of elevated temperature on Compressive strength of concrete containing waste glass powder. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation. 2017;7(4):280-91.

Elaqra HA, Haloub MAA, Rustom RN. Effect of new mixing method of glass powder as cement replacement on mechanical behavior of concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2019;203:75-82.

Elaqra HA, Elmasry, Ibrahim H. Tabasi AM, Alwan, Mohammed D. Shamia HN, Elnashar MI. Effect of water-to-cement ratio and soaking time of waste glass powder on the behaviour of green concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2021;299 (December 2020):124285.

Xi J, Rui X, Yuetan M, Miaomiao Z, Yun B, Baoshan H. Influence of waste glass powder on the physico-mechanical properties and microstructures of fly ashbased geopolymer paste after exposure to high temperatures. Construction and Building Materials. 2019 Jul;201(April):369-79.

Boukhelf F, Cherif R, Trabelsi A, Belarbi R, Bachir Bouiadjra M. On the hygrothermal behavior of concrete containing glass powder and silica fume. Journal of Cleaner Production [Internet]. 2021;318(April):128647. Available from:

Soliman NA, Omran AF, Tagnit-Hamou A. Laboratory characterization and field application of novel ultra-high-performance glass concrete. ACI Materials Journal. 2016;113(3):307–16.

Tariq S, Scott AN, Mackechnie JR, Shah V. Glass powder replacement in selfcompacting concrete and its effect on rheological and mechanical properties. Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials. 2021;0(0):1-17.

Soliman NA, Tagnit-Hamou A. Partial substitution of silica fume with fine glass powder in UHPC: Filling the micro gap. Construction and Building Materials. 2017;139:374-83.

Jain JA, Neithalath N. Chloride transport in fly ash and glass powder modified concretes - Influence of test methods on microstructure. Cement and Concrete Composites [Internet]. 2010;32(2):148–56.

Ramakrishnan K, Pugazhmani G, Sripragadeesh R, Muthu D, Venkatasubramanian C. Experimental study on the mechanical and durability properties of concrete with waste glass powder and ground granulated blast furnace slag as supplementary cementitious materials. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2017;156:739–49.

Jain KL, Sancheti G GL. Durability performance of waste granite and glass powder added concrete. Constr Build Mater [Internet]. 2020;252:1–11.

Balasubramanian B, Gopala Krishna GVT, Saraswathy V, Srinivasan K. Experimental investigation on concrete partially replaced with waste glass powder and waste E-plastic. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2021;278:122400. Available from:

Jiang X, Xiao R, Ma Y, Zhang M, Bai Y, Huang B. Influence of waste glass powder on the physico-mechanical properties and microstructures of fly ash-based geopolymer paste after exposure to high temperatures. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2020;262:120579. Available from:

Cheng A, Chao SJ, Lin WT. Effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on compression and durability of cement-based materials with mineral admixtures. Materials. 2013;6(5):1851–72.

Marchand J, Bentz DP, Samson E, Maltais Y. Influence of Calcium Hydroxide Dissolution on the Transport Properties of Hydrated Cement Systems. Materials Science. 2001;113–29.

“Shetty MS. Concrete Technology Theory and Practice. S. Chand & Company Ltd. Vol. 055. 2000. Available from:

Liu S, Wang S, Zhou W, Li L, Xiao H, Wei J, et al. Strength and microstructure of mortar containing glass powder and/or glass aggregate. Journal Wuhan University of Technology, Materials Science Edition. 2016;31(6):1302–10.

Costa H, Carmo RNF, Júlio E. Influence of lightweight aggregates concrete on the bond strength of concrete-to-concrete interfaces. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2018;180:519–30.

Diab AM, Abd Elmoaty AEM, Tag Eldin MR. Slant shear bond strength between self compacting concrete and old concrete. Construction and Building Materials [Internet]. 2017;130:73–82.

Gomaa E, Gheni AA, Kashosi C, ElGawady MA. Bond strength of eco-friendly class C fly ash-based thermally cured alkali-activated concrete to portland cement concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production [Internet]. 2019;235:404–16.

Hassan A, Kawakami M, Matsuoka S, Tanaka H. Evaluation of bond strength between ultra-high performance reactive powder composite materials and fiber-reinforced concrete by slant shear test. American Concrete Institute, ACI Special Publication. 2004;SP-222(January 2004):215–29.

Sun N, Song Y, Hou W, Zhang H, Wu D, Li Y, et al. Interfacial Bond Properties between Normal Strength Concrete and Epoxy Resin Concrete. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;2021.

Sahmaran M, Yücel HE, Yildirim G, Al-Emam M, Lachemi M. Investigation of the Bond between Concrete Substrate and ECC Overlays. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2014;26(1):167–74.

Tabor LJ. The evaluation of resin systems for concrete repair. Magazine of Concrete Research. 1978;30(105):221–5.

Júlio ENBS, Branco FAB, Silva VD. Concrete-to-concrete bond strength. Influence of the roughness of the substrate surface. Construction and Building Materials. 2004;18(9):675–81.

Saldanha R, Santos P, Júlio E. Influence of concrete density and strength on the bond strength of composite members. fib Symposium TEL-AVIV 2013: Engineering a Concrete Future: Technology, Modeling and Construction, Proceedings. 2013;(April 2013):321–4.

Clark LA, Gill BS. Shear strength of smooth unreinforced construction joints. Magazine of Concrete Research. 1985;37(131):95–100.

Austin S, Robins P, Pan Y. Shear bond testing of concrete repairs. Materials and Structures,. 1999;29(28):249-59.

Clímaco JCTS, Regan PE. Evaluation of bond strength between old and new concrete in structural repairs. Magazine of Concrete Research. 2001;53(6):377-90.

Júlio ENBS, Branco FAB, Silva VD, Lourenço JF. Influence of added concrete compressive strength on adhesion to an existing concrete substrate. Building and Environment. 2006;41(12):1934–9.

Santos PMD, Julio ENBS. Factors affecting bond between new and old concrete. ACI Materials Journal. 2011;108(4):449–56.

Naderi M. Analysis of the slant shear test. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 2009;23(2):229–45.

Momayez A, Ehsani MR, Ramezanianpour AA, Rajaie H. Comparison of methods for evaluating bond strength between concrete substrate and repair materials. Cement and Concrete Research. 2005;35(4):748–57.

Silfwerbrand J. Shear bond strength in repaired concrete structures. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions. 2003;36(260):419–24.

Asad M, Baluch MH, Al-Gadhib AH. Drying shrinkage stresses in concrete patch repair systems. Magazine of Concrete Research. 1997;49(181):283-93.

Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM. Concrete Microstructure, Properties, and Materials. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill; 2006. 1 to 684.

Pattnaik RR. Investigation on Failures of Composite Beam and Substrate Concrete due to Drying Shrinkage Property of Repair Materials. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A. 2017;98(1–2):85-93.

Decter MH, Keeley C. Durable concrete repair - Importance of compatibility and low shrinkage. Construction and Building Materials. 1997;11(5-6):267-73.

Saucier F, Bastien J, Pigeon M, Fafard M. A Combine Shear-comprehension Decive to Measure Concrete-to-concrete Bonding. 1981;

ASTM C150:2015. Standard Specification for Portland Cement. Vol. i. 2015.

IS 383:2016. Coarse and fine aggregate for concrete -specification. Vol. Third revi, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi. 2016. p. 1-21.

IS 2386 - Part III:2002. Method of Test for aggregate for concrete - Specific gravity, density, voids, absorption and bulking. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi, India. 2002. p. 1-22.

IS 10262:2019. Concrete Mix Proportioning-Guidelines (Second Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) New Delhi. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) New Delhi. 2019. p. 1-27.

ASTM C143M-03:2003. Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 2003. p. 1–4.

IS 516. Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete. Vol. 59, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi, India. 2018. p. 1-27.

ASTM C642:2013. Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete, ASTM International, United States. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 2013. p. 1-3.

ASTM C1585-04:2007. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Rate of Absorption of Water by Hydraulic-Cement Concretes. American Society for Testing and Materials. 2007. p. 1-6.

ASTM C1202:2012. Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration. American Society for Testing and Materials. 2012. p. 1-8.

IS 2185-Part1:2005. Indian Standard Concrete masonry units, Part 1: Hollow and solid concrete blocks. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) New Delhi. 2005. p.17.

EN 12615:1999. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures-Test methods-Determination of slant shear strength. BS; 1999.

ACI 546R-04:2012. Concrete Repair Guide. Vol. 28, ACI. 2012. p. 0-15.

Zanotti C, Borges PHR, Bhutta A, Banthia N. Bond strength between concrete substrate and metakaolin geopolymer repair mortar: Effect of curing regime and PVA fiber reinforcement. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2017;80:307-16.

Aliabdo AA, Abd Elmoaty AEM, Aboshama AY. Utilization of waste glass powder in the production of cement and concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2016;124:866-77.

Soliman NA, Tagnit-Hamou A. Development of ultra-high-performance concrete using glass powder – Towards ecofriendly concrete. Construction and Building Material. 2016;125:600-12.

ASTM C618:2014. Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, ASTM International. 2014. p. 1-5.

Du H, Tan KH. Waste glass powder as cement replacement in concrete. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology.





How to Cite

Paul, D., & K.R., B. (2023). Strength, Durability and Bond Characteristics of Hybrid Glass Powder Concrete for Applying as an Overlay. Science & Technology Asia, 28(3), 158–177. Retrieved from