Applicability Assessment of Oil Palm Trunk Biochar for Use as Soil Amendment: Morphology, Structure, and Chemical Properties


  • Ebsan Marihot Sianipar Program in Agriculture Science, Universitas Medan Area, Medan 20112, Indonesia, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Methodist Indonesia, Medan 20132, Indonesia
  • Sumihar Hutapea Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Medan Area, Medan 20112, Indonesia
  • Ernitha Panjaitan Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Methodist Indonesia, Medan 20132, Indonesia
  • Siti Mardiana Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Medan Area, Medan 20112, Indonesia


Carbon, Characterization, Drum retort kiln, Heavy metal, Pyrolysis


This study was conducted to investigate the quality of biochars derived from oil palm trunk (OPT) based on relative trunk height (bottom, middle, top). The OPT biochars were produced by drum retort kiln with a temperature range of 300-400°C (slow pyrolysis conditions). Morphology, structure, chemical properties and heavy metal content of the OPT biochars were measured in order to assess their suitability for use as a soil amendment. The synthesized carbon was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The morphology of the OPT biochars was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) to identify mineral species on the OPT biochar surface. The analytical methods applied for biochar characterization were proximate analysis and elemental analysis. Characterization of surface functional groups of the OPT biochar was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the analysis results, the biochar derived from bottom OPT had the highest intensity peak measured by XRD; it contained 62.05% fixed carbon, 69.21% carbon, and it had the lowest oxygen content at 26.28%. The highest number of pores was found in biochar derived from top OPT. Overall, the biochars had rich macronutrients, numerous functional groups, and low heavy metal content. This study showed the applicability of oil palm trunk biochar for use as a soil amendment for agricultural applications.


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How to Cite

Sianipar, E. M., Hutapea, S., Panjaitan, E., & Mardiana, S. (2024). Applicability Assessment of Oil Palm Trunk Biochar for Use as Soil Amendment: Morphology, Structure, and Chemical Properties. Science & Technology Asia, 29(1), 256–270. Retrieved from



Biological sciences