Science & Technology Asia <p class="Default">Science &amp; Technology Asia (formerly the International Journal of Science and Technology Thammasat), first published in 1996, is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal containing original research articles, review articles and short communications in areas related to science and technology. Science &amp; Technology Asia is a forum through which scientists and experts in the fields of science and technology share and discuss their quality research. Original research articles, as well as review articles and brief papers in multidisciplinary scientific and technological fields are included in the journal.</p> <p class="Default">The journal welcomes contributions in the following areas:</p> <p class="Default"><img title="\begin{array}{ll} \text{1.} &amp; \textbf{Physical sciences:} \\ &amp; \text{Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Statistics.} \\ \text{2.} &amp; \textbf{Engineering:} \\ &amp; \text{Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering,} \\ &amp; \text{Environmental Engineering, Computer Engineering and information technology.} \\ \text{3.} &amp; \textbf{Biological sciences:} \\ &amp; \text{Biology, Zoology, Botany, Genetics, Agriculture and Ecology.} \end{array}" src="\begin{array}{ll}&amp;space;\text{1.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Physical&amp;space;sciences:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Chemistry,&amp;space;Physics,&amp;space;Mathematics&amp;space;and&amp;space;Statistics.}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;\text{2.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Engineering:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Electrical&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Chemical&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Civil&amp;space;Engineering,}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Environmental&amp;space;Engineering,&amp;space;Computer&amp;space;Engineering&amp;space;and&amp;space;information&amp;space;technology.}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;\text{3.}&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\textbf{Biological&amp;space;sciences:}&amp;space;\\&amp;space;&amp;&amp;space;\text{Biology,&amp;space;Zoology,&amp;space;Botany,&amp;space;Genetics,&amp;space;Agriculture&amp;space;and&amp;space;Ecology.}&amp;space;\end{array}">&nbsp;</p> <p class="Default">The journal publishes 4 issues a year: No. 1, January-March; No. 2, April-June; No. 3, July-September; and No. 4, October-December.</p> <p class="Default">Science &amp; Technology Asia is currently indexed in national and international online and electronic databases, including the Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI), the ASEAN CSE Index (ACI), the Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB) and Scopus.</p> <p class="Default">This journal has adopted a double-blind reviewing policy whereby both the referees and author(s) remain anonymous throughout the process.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Thammasat University en-US Science & Technology Asia 2586-9000 Effects of Combined Submaximal Aerobic Exercise and Anaerobic Exercise on Serum Human Growth Hormone in Undergraduate Students <p><span lang="EN-US">The serum human growth hormone (GH) levels at pre- and post-experiment based on designed submaximal aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise program for cardiovascular endurance in physical education students were investigated in comparison to the aged-match sedentary control medical student group. According to a paired-samples t-test of physical education students, there were statistically significant differences between the pre- and postexercise program at week</span><span lang="EN-US"> 0 (<em>t</em> = -2.724, <em>p</em> = 0.013) and week 4 (<em>t</em> = -1.340, <em>p</em> = 0.018) whereas no significant differences between pre- and post-exercise programs were observed at week 8. It may be possible that the intensity of the designed exercise program was ineffectually strenuous to prolong the activation of GH secretion. Hence, the improvement by adjusting the exercise program in each week should be designed to prevent the body from becoming acclimatized to the exercise program.</span></p> Chankit Kumpuang Tantamas Suklorm Paiyada Sungtong Kosum Chansiri Panaree Busarakumtragul Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 1 8 Molecular Structure, Electrostatic Potential and HOMO, LUMO Studies of 4-Aminoaniline, 4-Nitroaniline and 4-Isopropylaniline by DFT <p>This research used the method of functional density theory (DFT). The B3LYP / 6- 311G (d, p) was used to determine the chemical descriptor, the ionization potential (I), the electron affinity (A), the chemical potential (<img title="\mu" src="\mu" />), the chemical hardness (<img title="\eta" src="\eta" />); 3D maps of HOMO and LUMO orbits were used to develop the structure and activity of quantitative relationships. The values of the energy gap showed that p isopropylaniline is the stable molecule and p-nitroaniline is the reactive molecule. Large basis set-theoretical calculations of the dipole polarizabilities and second hyperpolarizabilities of molecules have been carried out to assess optical properties of atomic contributions to the overall molecular response tensors. The values of the dipole moment and the first-order hyperpolarizability have the same tendency because they are related to molecular symmetry. The DFT method has been used of which is to compare the angles and lengths of molecular bonds with the experimental results. This research used the electrostatic molecular potential (MEP) and electrostatic contour to understand the regions of reactivity of the three molecules. The negative molecular electrostatic potential sites intended for electrophilic attack for p-aminoaniline, p-nitroaniline and p-isopropylaniline are (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, N7, N8), (O9, O10) and (C5, C6), respectively.</p> Hayat EL Ouafy Mouna Aamor Mustapha Oubenali Mohamed Mbarki Aziz EL Haimouti Tarik EL Ouafy Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 9 19 On Answer to Kirk-Shahzad’s Question for Strong b-TVS Cone Metric Spaces <p>In this paper, we introduced the concept of strong <em>b</em>-TVS cone metric space. Furthermore, we proved that any strong <em>b</em>-TVS cone metric space has a completion. Our results gave an analogue answer to Kirk-Shahzad’s question in the case of strong <em>b</em>-TVS cone metric spaces.</p> Doan Trong Hieu Bui The Hung Muhammad Sirajo Abdullahi Poom Kumam Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 20 30 Modeling Investigations of Thermophoretic Magnetohydrodymics Flow in a Penetrable Wedge with Higher-Order Slip <p>Modeling studies were carried out to examine the thermophoretic magnetohydrodynamics flow phenomena in a penetrable wedge with the higher-order (second-order) slip interaction. The model problem including mass, momentum, and energy equations transforms into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by exploiting a new class of similarity approach. The modified model equations are solved using the Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting method with the sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The numerical outputs generated for the stream function, velocity, and the local skin friction are equated with the past results presented in the literature and found to have excellent precision. The modeling results reveal that the velocity outlines drop gradually with the lessening of different model constraints comprising mass transfer coefficient, wedge angle, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, first-order slip parameters, and shrinkages with the intensification of second-order slip constraint. The outcomes also show that the temperature profiles rise with the upsurge of Biot number, and Schmidt number, whereas the reverse scenarios are observed for Hartmann number, and unsteadiness parameter. Numerical results for the effects of the distinct constraints named the local skin-friction coefficient, rate of heat and mass transfer, thermophoretic velocity, and thermophoretic deposition velocity are also exposed in tabular form and discussed in detail.</p> M.M. Billah Md. Khairul Alam S. M. Chapal Hossain Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 31 45 Analysis of Highway Network Performance on Truck Route Development for Eastern Thailand <p>Traffic congestion occurs when the amount on the demand side (the number of vehicles on the roadway) is greater than the capability of highway networks to cope the traffic on the supply side. Solutions for traffic congestion can be implemented by adding capacity and/or managing traffic demand. Examples of improving the supply side are highway expansion or highway extension, while an example of demand management is truck route development for an area with high freight transportation use. This research has the objective of analyzing highway network performance when demand management, which is truck route development, was implemented for a network in Eastern Thailand. The method used for the analysis is solving the traffic assignment and the network capacity to compare volume to capacity (v/c) ratios and quantify capacity flexibility. Three truck routes were investigated: Case 1, a truck route for highway No. 331; Case 2, a truck route for the motorway; and Case 3, a truck route for both the motorway and highway No. 331. Performance comparisons among the three cases were based on volume to capacity (v/c) ratios for truck lanes and regular lanes. In addition, capacity flexibility was compared for the cases to determine if the networks could handle traffic demand. In all three cases, the v/c ratios for most truck lanes were a little higher, while the v/c ratios for the regular lanes were lower. Cases 2 and 3 had higher values for capacity flexibility. Case 3, with the highest total truck route distance, was recommended for accommodating demand uncertainty and promoting safety.</p> Panatda Kasikitwiwat Sarawut Jansuwan Kitti Subprasom Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 46 56 Pharmacokinetics of Gallic Acid Following Single-Dose Administration of Triphala Formulation in Healthy Thai Subjects <p>Triphala is commonly used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of various health conditions. The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose (2,000 and 4,000 mg) of an aqueous extract Triphala formulation in 32 healthy Thai subject. Venous blood samples were collected from each subject at specific time points and concentrations of gallic acid, the major active component of the formulation, were measured using LC-MS/MS. Plasma concentration-time profiles were analyzed by the model-independent approach. Triphala formulations at both dose levels were well tolerated in all subjects. The pharmacokinetics of gallic acid was dose-independent. The median value for maximum concentration (C<sub>max</sub>), area under the curve from zero time to 48 hours after dosing (AUC<sub>0-48hr</sub>) and total AUC (AUC<sub>0-∞</sub>) following 4,000 mg dose of Triphala were about twice that of the 2,000 mg dose (C<sub>max</sub>: 70.81 vs. 41.84 ng/mL, AUC<sub>0-48hr</sub>: 150.12 vs. 88.46, and AUC<sub>0-∞</sub>: 151.87 vs. 91.78 ng· hr/ml, respectively). The median time to maximum concentration (t<sub>max</sub>) and the terminal elimination half-life (t<sub>1/2z</sub>) was 1 hour for both dose levels. The study provides preliminary information on the pharmacokinetics of gallic acid in humans for further dose optimization of Triphala formulation in treating various health conditions.</p> Piracha Jumpa-ngern Somboon Kietinun Kusuma Sriyakul Parunkul Tungsukruthai Wiratchanee Mahavorasirikul Kesara Na-Bangchang Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 57 66 Use of Alarm Symptoms to Discriminate Abdominal Pain Related to Organic GI Diseases from Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders <p>Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is one of the most commonly encountered problems in children and is usually attributable to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) rather than organic disease. Although alarm symptoms help to discriminate organic disease from FGIDs, further investigation might still be helpful. The aim of this study was to determine the role of alarm symptoms in this discrimination, at Thammasat University Hospital between 2010 and 2016. The medical records of 71 patients with RAP were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical diagnoses of FGIDs were based on the Rome III criteria. Information was collected on demographic data, clinical characteristics (alarm symptoms), laboratory test results, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) results and radiography. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. A total of 71 patients were included in the study. The patients’ mean age was 9 years (range: 2-15 years), and the majority was composed of females (61.43%). FGIDs (61.97%) were more common causes of RAP than organic GI diseases. The alarm symptoms of FGIDs and organic GI diseases were found in 27 percent and 100 percent of the patients, respectively. The most commonly encountered alarm symptoms in organic causes were nocturnal pain (51.85%), followed by weight loss (40.74%) and then GI blood loss (37%). The significant alarm symptoms for discriminating between FGIDs and organic GI diseases were nocturnal pain, weight loss, gastrointestinal blood loss and anemia (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05).</p> Punnapatch Piriyanon Sukkrawan Intarakhao Prapasri Kulalert Settachote Maholarnkij Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 67 73 Preservative Potential of Thai Herb Extracts Combined with Bacteriocin from Bacillus velezensis BUU004 for Controlling Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria in Dried Crushed Seasoned Squid <p>This study aimed to develop a novel biopreservative to replace chemical preservatives currently used in Thai dried seafood products. A mixed extract of chili spur pepper and lemongrass was evaluated for its preservative potential in dried crushed seasoned squid. The mixed extract (80 mg/ml) showed weak activity against bacteria, lowering the total viable count (TVC) measured in dried squid during a 28-day storage at room temperature; although, at 160 and 320 mg/ml, the applications of mixed extract demonstrated a similarly strong inhibitory efficacy to each other, but higher than that of the 80-mg/ml mixed extract. However, some spoilage from <em>Bacillus</em> species and fungi were found in the treated samples. Then, a novel preservation technology was developed by incorporating the mixed herb extract (160 mg/ml) with a semi-purified preparation of bacteriocin from <em>Bacillus velezensis</em> BUU004 (SPP-BV). A significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) decrease in TVC was observed in the herb-SPP-BV-treated squid, along with the absence of fungal and staphylococci growth during a 28-day refrigerated storage. The novel combination was also investigated for its inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogen, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, in dried squid using the MPN method with results showing a substantial reduction in <em>B. cereus</em> numbers during a 28-day refrigerated storage. The mode of action of this novel combination was pathogen cell lysis due to ruptured cell walls, observed by SEM. Finally, administration of the novel preservative cocktail had no degenerative effects on the sensory qualities (color and odor) of the squid. These results suggest that the mixed herb extract combined with SPP-BV has promising potential as an alternative food preservative for controlling food spoilage and pathogenic bacterial growth, and improving Thai dried seafood product quality.</p> Pornpimon Soodsawaeng Nanticha Rattanamangkalanon Traimat Boonthai Verapong Vuthiphandchai Subuntith Nimrat Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 74 88 Monomer Conversion, Dimensional Stability, and Biaxial Flexural Strength of Flowable Dental Composites Containing Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Andrographolide <p>The aim of this study was to develop flowable dental composites containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and andrographolide (Andro). The effect of these additives on monomer conversion, dimensional stability (mass/volume changes), and biaxial flexural strength was examined. The composites were prepared with a powder to liquid mixing ratio of 1.7:1 (mass ratio). Liquid phase contained light curable methacrylates. Powder phase contained dental glass, TCP (5 or 2.5wt%), and Andro (5 or 2.5wt%). Monomer conversion was assessed using FTIRATR (n=5). Mass and volume changes were assessed using gravimetric studies (<em>n</em> = 3). Biaxial flexural strength was assessed using a mechanical testing frame (<em>n</em> = 6). Fracture surface was assessed using SEM-EDX. The commercial controls were resin-based materials (Z350 and Riva). The highest conversion was observed with Riva (81%). The conversion of composites containing TCP and Andro (~53% ) was comparable with that of Z350 (51%). The additives reduced monomer conversion of the composites by ~10%. Rising level of TCP and Andro showed minimal effect on the conversion. Mass/volume changes of the experimental composites (1.3wt%, 1.7vol%) were higher than that of Z350 (0.4wt%, 0.6vol%). The additives showed minimal effect on mass/volume changes but reduced BFS of the composites from 183 to 137 MPa. Rising level of Andro reduced BFS by 17% whilst rising TCP level showed negligible effect. Fracture surface revealed calcium phosphates precipitated in the composites. In conclusion, the experimental composites containing TCP and Andro showed comparable monomer conversion but lower strength than Z350. The additives reduced monomer conversion and strength of the composites, but their strength was higher than specified in the standard of dental composite.</p> Piyaphong Panpisut Itthi Ounprom Supawat Pongnumkul Kanyani Aium-on Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 89 99 Relationship Between Core Muscle Strength and Power, Pelvis-Hip Biomechanics, and Golf Performance <p>Biomechanical and physical fitness characteristics, in particular the strength and power of trunk and pelvis are important factors influencing the performance of rapid movements of upper and lower extremities. The golf swing is a rapid movement of upper trunk and upper limb. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between core muscle strength and power, pelvis-hip biomechanics, and performance during golf swing. Twenty-two golfers aged from 17 to 33 years participated in this study. Core muscle strength and power were assessed using a medicine ball seated throw and cable weight machine. The biomechanical characteristics of pelvis-hip were recorded by a three-dimensional motion analysis system. A golf simulator was used to measure performance including club head speed, ball speed, and ball distance. Statistically significant correlations were observed between biomechanical characteristics (left hip abduction at top of swing) and golf performances (r = -0.43 to -0.51, p &lt; 0.05). Correlations were moderate between physical fitness (core muscle strength and power) and pelvis-hip biomechanical characteristics (r = 0.43-0.54, p &lt; 0.05). Our findings demonstrated significant correlations between left hip abduction at top swing and golf performance (focusing on ball speed and driving distance) as well as core muscle strength/power and pelvis-hip biomechanics including X-factor. Therefore, improvement of these variables may enhance performance by controlling the stability of the trunk and pelvis which in turn could lead to a more effective golf swing.</p> Piriya Suwondit Plaiwan Suttanon Tanawat Vanasant Sutima Suwankan Vinitha Puengtanom Jakkrapan Chupthaisong Sudarat Apibantaweesakul Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 100 113 Using Rice Husk Biochar For Ming Aralia (Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harm) Production Under Saline Conditions <p><em>Polyscias fruticosa</em> (L.) Harms is a traditional medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of ischemia and inflammation in the Southeast Asia region. Salinity stress has a negative impact on plant growth and development. Therefore, the application of biochar could help alleviate the problem. This research aims to find the optimal growing medium components for Ming Aralia to produce active compounds under saline conditions. A pot experiment was conducted from June to December 2019 with 2-month-old plants based on complete randomized design (CRD). The treatments include 1) NBNS (non-biochar, non-saline), 2) NBMD (non-biochar, moderate salinity), 3) NBSI (non-biochar, saline severity I), 4) NBSII (non-biochar, saline severity II), 5) 25NS (25% biochar, non-saline), 6) 25MD (25% biochar, moderate salinity), 7) 25SI (25% biochar, saline severity I), 8) 25SII (25% biochar, saline severity II), 9) 50NS (50% biochar, non-saline), 10) 50MD (50% biochar, moderate salinity), 11) 50 SI (50% biochar, saline severity I), 12) 50SII (50% biochar, saline severity II) with 8 replications. Results showed that increases in salinity from non-saline to saline severity II significantly reduced plant height, leaf area, leaf and root fresh weight, and dry weight. Antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolic and flavonoid compound content were found to be higher when rice husk biochar was used at 25% and 50% under moderate and severe saline conditions.</p> Mai Nguyen Phip Ninh Thom Nguyen Benya Manochai Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 114 127 Enhancing the Quality of Long-Term Patient Care by Use of the Innovative “Electrical Bed-Turning System” for the Prevention of Pressure Injuries: A Pilot Study <p>Pressure injuries are a complication potentially occurring with long-term care residents. Prevention of pressure injuries significantly reduces the physical and psychological burdens on both patients and caregivers. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research design was to determine the effectiveness of an innovation: an electrical bed-turning system, and to study the opinions of caregivers on the use of this system. Samples consisted of 30 long-term care residents. Research instruments consisted of a demographic data questionnaire and pressure injury assessment form, together with an evaluation of the caregivers’ viewpoints. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test. After three months into the study, there were two pressure ulcer cases in the experimental group. The ulcers developed in the third month. There was a significant statistical difference from the control group, which developed 15 pressure ulcer cases: two, four and nine pressure ulcers in the first, second and third months, respectively. The caregivers had the greatest satisfaction in the use of the patient-turning beds. These beds were a health-based innovation that helped to develop long-term care capacity and to reduce caregiver workload. As a health-based innovation, it is also in compliance with the national policy of Thailand 4.0.</p> Jinpitcha Mamom Bunyong Rungroungdouyboon Jak Chuanasa Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 128 135 A Phase I Study of Oral Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) Capsule in Healthy Adult Volunteers <p><em>Zingiber cassumunar</em> Roxb., called Phlai in Thai, is a traditional herb, has multiple bioactive properties including anti-inflammatory activity, smooth muscle relaxation, antihistamine activity, and mucin secretion lowering properties. As a result, Phlai may have the potential to treat asthma. Our phase I study aimed to study the safety profile of oral Phlai capsules in healthy adult volunteers during 12 weeks of consumption. Ten participants, aged 18-50, were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were taken to measure complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, electrolyte, liver function and fasting blood sugar; urinary analyses for all, and urine pregnancy testing for female volunteers, were done. With normal lab results, the volunteers commenced taking two oral Phlai capsules once daily (200 mg/day) over 12 weeks. The same blood and urine tests were performed at 1, 2, 4, 12 and 14 weeks. The mean age (SD) of participants was 36.10 (7.26) years old. There were no laboratory abnormalities during the study and follow-up period except in one volunteer, a 25-year-old male with a slightly decreased white blood count of 3.6 x103/μl (neutrophil 39.8%) in the 1st week and 3.9x10<sup>3</sup>/μl (neutrophil 40.6%) in the 14th week. Four participants reported somnolence 4-5 hours after taking the drug during the first two weeks. In conclusion, oral Phlai capsules (200 mg/day) for 12 weeks did not cause serious adverse events, including the laboratory abnormalities in our healthy volunteers. However, somnolence was found in 40% of the participants during the first 2 weeks and improved over time.</p> Pattarin Pirompanich Thaweephol Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya Sittichai Koontongkaew Orapan Poachanukoon Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 136 142 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Pythium spp. from Hydroponically-Grown Lettuce <p>Herein, hydroponic <em>Pythium communities</em> in Thailand were investigated. The 38 <em>Pythium</em> isolates from asymptomatic and symptomatic lettuce roots were identified using morphological and molecular features. The data indicated that <em>P. aphanidermatum</em> and <em>P. myriotylum</em> were the predominant species. Regarding the rDNA-ITS study, all isolates were identified as <em>P. aphanidermatum</em>, <em>P. myriotylum</em>, <em>P. deliense</em>, or an unidentified <em>Pythium </em>species. The reconfirmation of the three unidentified <em>Pythium</em> isolates using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in comparison to the representative isolates was achieved using <em>P. aphanidermatum</em> and <em>P. myriotylum</em>. The COI phylogenetic trees were similar to that of the ITS tree. Addi-tionally, pathogenicity of the <em>Pythium</em> representative isolates to plant seeds was evaluated in a laboratory assay. The seedlings suffered serious symptoms from <em>P. myriotylum</em> SR31 infection, with 90-100% disease severity. The other isolates presented disease severity of less than 20% when compared with uninoculated control. This study provides a comprehensive identification of <em>Pythium</em> root rot in lettuce grown on hydroponics in Thailand and provides information on beneficial microorganisms and a resistance inducer in lettuce root rot.</p> Chulalak Talubnak Henk-jan Schoonbeek Nonglak Parinthawong Tanimnun Jaenaksorn Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 143 154 Vitamin D Insufficiency and Atopy in Asthmatic Children at Thammasat University Hospital <p>This study aimed to assess serum 25-hydroxylase vitamin D level and allergen sensitization among asthmatic children attending the allergy clinic at Thammasat University hospital. The association between vitamin D insufficiency and level of asthma control was also explored. Eighty asthmatic children, aged 6-18 years, attending the allergy clinic at Thammasat University hospital were recruited. Clinical data, level of asthma control, results of skin prick test to allergens and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were collected. The mean age of pediatric asthma patients in this study was 10.2 years (SD=3.3 years) with 47 boys (58.8%). The mean serum vitamin D level was 34.8 ng/ml (SD=12.8 ng/ml). The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 23.8 percent (95% confidence interval: 14.9%-34.6%). The prevalence of atopy was 82.5 percent. The most prevalent sensitization factor was dust mite (71.3%), followed by cockroach (36.3%). No significant association was found between level of asthma control and patient factors, including vitamin D status. In conclusion, the problem of vitamin D insufficiency among asthmatic children at Thammasat University hospital did exist. The most prevalent sensitization factor was house dust mite, followed by cockroach. However, no significant factors associated with level of asthma control were found.</p> Paskorn Sritipsukho Orapan Poachanukoon Sira Nanthapisal Prapasri Kulalert Sukkrawan Intarakhao Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 155 159 Abdominal Computed Tomography Findings in Adults with Acute Right Lower Quadrant Pain <p>Acute right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain is a common symptom in patients suffering from conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, or enterocolitis. Some of these are emergency conditions and often require further investigation using abdominal computed tomography (CT). The objective of this study was to evaluate CT data from adult patients with acute RLQ pain coming from various causes. Data were collected from the electronic medical records of patients aged over 15 years, who presented acute RLQ pain, at the emergency department or outpatient department, and who were then sent to receive abdominal CT scans; the data were then reviewed independently by two experienced radiologists. The final diagnosis for each patient was retrieved from surgical findings, pathological results, and medical records. Abdominal CT diagnoses were considered along with the final diagnosis and calculated as a percent. A total of 240 patients were eligible for this study. Appendicitis and related complications was the most common CT diagnoses, consisting of 160 patients (66.67%). A normal CT finding was the second most common CT diagnosis, consisting of 18 patients (7.50%). Enterocolitis was the third most common CT diagnosis, consisting of 16 patients (6.67%). Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer was the sixth most common CT diagnosis, consisting of six patients (2.50%). Fifteen cases had discordance between the CT and final diagnoses. The most common diagnoses in discordant cases was normal in CT diagnosis with enterocolitis in final diagnosis, occurring in eight patients (53.33%). The most common abdominal CT finding in adults with acute RLQ pain was appendicitis and related complications. The second most common CT finding was normal CT findings. The third most common CT finding was enterocolitis. However, acute RLQ pain can present in cases of GI cancer, the sixth most common final diagnosis. CT scans are considered useful in inconclusive clinical presentations and it must be noted that the disease may be something other than appendicitis.</p> Wichet Piyawong Ruttapon Konhan Wanrudee Lohitvisate Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 160 168 Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change on Rice Production: A Qualitative Perspective <p>Several quantitative studies have concluded that climate change would negatively affect the Asian rice supply. Recently, as temperatures in Asia have approached the temperature threshold for rice growth, the Asian rice supply has become vulnerable to climate change in the near future. To complement quantitative studies' projections of the negative impacts of climate change on rice supply, this paper offers a qualitative analysis using system archetypes to understand the impacts of climate change on rice production. Two structures of the system archetypes are identified including Limits to Growth and Success to Successful. Both archetypes explain that rice production is hampered by high minimum temperature, as photosynthesis output is decreased by an increasing respiration. This paper shows that using this simple tool, system archetypes, we can describe the impacts of climate change on rice production. The outputs of this study, such as the causal loop diagram and system archetypes, can be the basis for the development of a simulation model used for understanding the impacts of climate change on major crops.</p> Muhamad Khairulbahri Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 169 179 Anti-inflammatory Activity and Major Compounds of the Traditional Thai Medicines, Triphala, Trikatuk, and their Combined Formulae <p>Inflammation is a common factor leading to pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, chronic metabolic syndromes, arthritis, and cancer. Trikatuk and Triphala are traditional poly-herbal preparations widely used in Ayurvedic and Thai traditional medicine. The present study aimed to investigate various combinations of these preparations and their mixing methods to optimize product efficacy. Samples were extracted by boiling in water and maceration with 95% ethanol. All samples were tested for inhibitory effects on <em>LPS</em>-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and on <em>LPS</em>-induced prostaglandins (PGE<sub>2</sub>) from RAW 264.7 cells. Contents of major markers of the extracts were analyzed with HPLC. Trikatuk ethanolic extract showed anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production but Triphala had no effect on neither NO nor PEG<sub>2</sub> production. A combined formula of Triphala and Trikatuk (1:1) provided moderate anti-inflammatory activity in both pathways. The present study reported the anti-inflammatory effects of various combinations and mixing methods of Trikatuk and Triphala, the results of which could be used to develop optimal combinations for future use as dietary supplements and other health products.</p> Supaluck Nuaeissara Arunporn Itharat Weerachai Pipatrattanaseree Sumalee Panthong Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 180 189 Thermodynamic Predictive Design for Single-Step Synthesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Gene <p>Synthetic genes have many advantages over natural ones. Gene synthesis strategies that are cost-effective, simple, time-saving and accurate are often developed. Many previous works have suggested the use of numerous short oligonucleotides to improve accuracy. In this study, the prediction of secondary structure, shape and interaction of nucleic acids was studied in a gene synthesis with longer oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were designed for the <em>Escherichia coli</em> codon-optimized 318-bp gene coding for the HIV-1 protease and the extra seven amino acids located upstream and function as an auto-processing site. All the designed oligonucleotides were then analyzed for their interactions with NUPACK to predict synthesis, and with gquad and DNAShapeR to predict G-quadruplexes and shape, respectively. To test the prediction, the optimal number of thermal cycling rounds in the assembly step was determined. It was found that this synthesis could be done in a single step without errors as verified by sequencing. This report shows that analysis of minimum free energy secondary structures of the interacting oligonucleotides is useful for checking whether the components can hybridize correctly.</p> Somchai Saengamnatdej Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 190 198 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Lesion Patterns in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) <p>We aimed to describe MRI lesion patterns in cases of NMOSD, aiding diagnosis of the disease. We retrospectively examined 27 patients with NMOSD, done by two neuroradiologists evaluating spinal cord, optic nerve and brain lesions. The mean number of involved spinal cord vertebral segments was 8.32 ±4.77 and the median longitudinal length was 11.4 centimeters (6.8-20.2). Spinal cord involvement ≥ 3 vertebral segments was found in 89.47% of patients. Concerning the location of spinal cord lesions, 84.21% were cervical, 57.9% were thoracic, and 57.9% were covered cervicomedullary junction. All spinal cord lesions showed both central and peripheral involvement on axial distribution and 94.74% of spinal cord lesions involved more than 50% of the cross-sectional area. Bright spotty lesions were found in 42.11% of patients. Bilateral optic neuritis was found in 83.33% of patients. These lesions involved more than half of the optic nerve length in 63.64% of patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were found in 88% of patients. The most frequently involved area was deep/subcortical white matter (76%). The second most frequently involved area was periependymal surface (60%). MRI lesion patterns that are suggestive of NMOSD include longitudinal involvement of the spinal cord at three or more contiguous vertebral segments, both central and peripheral involvement on axial distribution which involves more than 50% as well as bilateral optic nerve involvement, and involvement in more than half of the optic nerve length. Cervical and cervicomedullary junction involvement seemed to be more common than thoracic involvement in Thai patients.</p> Arvemas Watcharakorn Supawan Sukpairoh Varalee Mingkwansook Puchit Sukphulloprat Copyright (c) 2022 Science & Technology Asia 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 199 211