Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj <p align="justify"><strong>The Environment and Natural Resources Journal</strong> (Environ. Nat. Resour. J.) is a peer-reviewed and freely available online journal, published in six issues per year by the Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University, Thailand. The journal publishes the original research articles in all areas of environmental science and natural resource management with emphasis on Asia and Southeast Asia. All articles are considered for publication in this journal with the understanding that they must not be previously published in another journal or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. The journal follows the single-blind peer review process to maintain the quality in the published articles. The submitted manuscripts are evaluated by at least two independent reviewers in the relevant fields and must be approved by the editorial board before being accepted for publication. Manuscripts should be submitted online via the website: <a href="https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/user/register">https://www.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/user/register</a> </p> <table style="width: 606px; height: 167px;" border="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="331"><strong>Journal Abbreviation</strong> : Environ. Nat. Resour. J. </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <table style="width: 99%;" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td><strong>ISSN 2408-2384 </strong>(online)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ISSN 1686-5456 </strong>(print)</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Language:</strong> English</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Volume per year:</strong> 6 Issues (Jan.-Feb., Mar.-Apr., May.-Jun., July.-Aug., Sep.-Oct. and Nov.-Dec.)</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img src="https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/public/site/images/ennrjournal/Cover_17(1)_(1)1.png" width="422" height="597" /></p> Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University en-US Environment and Natural Resources Journal 1686-5456 <p>Published articles are under the copyright of the Environment and Natural Resources Journal effective when the article is accepted for publication thus granting Environment and Natural Resources Journal&nbsp;all rights for the work so that both parties may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use. Partially or totally publication of an article elsewhere is possible only after the consent from the editors.</p> Biosorption of Toxic Reactive Blue Textile Dye from Effluent Water Using Immobilized Biomass Based Adsorbent https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250294 <p>The present research employed immobilized Canna indica beads (CIBs) to obtain maximum degradation of highly toxic Reactive Blue Dye (RBD), predominantly used in textile industry. The CIBs were characterized using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. A batch adsorption study was conducted to measure the removal of harmful RBD dye. Different factors were examined in the biosorption technique to achieve the maximum level of toxic dye elimination, such as adsorbent-solute interaction time (5-120 min), solution pH (2-10), adsorbent dose (25 to 250 mg/100 mL), RBD concentration (50-250 mg/L), and temperature (30-60°C). Removal of 99.96% of RBD was successfully achieved at the optimum pH 7, RBD concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 150 mg/100 mL, a temperature of 303 K, and 60 min of interaction time. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model data have been found to be an ideal match compared to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-first-order (PFO) kinetic model. The maximum adsorption capacity onto CIBs biosorbent was found to be 70.49 mg/g. It was noticed that the chemical reaction occurred naturally and released heat during the process which denoted an exothermic reaction. These results shown that the adsorption of RBD removal is efficient using prepared adsorbent from Canna indica root tubers. Therefore, these CIBs could be used for other toxic dyes and heavy metals from industrial wastewater.</p> Tanjore Ramachandran Sundararaman Sivamani Sivalingam Melvin Millicent Mabel Trisha Gobinath Copyright (c) 2023 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 1 12 Microbes Isolated from Landfill Soil Utilize Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Their Sole Source of Carbon: An Unexplored Possibility of Bioremediation in Bangladesh https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/249630 <p>Plastic products are so extensively used that they continue to strain the already overburdened waste management system and, inevitably, the global climate. Biodegradation is a sustainable remedy. Here, we report a few microorganisms isolated from landfill soil near Dhaka that thrive especially on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymers. Soil samples were subjected to three enrichment cycles that contained no carbon except PET. Pure isolates were recovered and incubated on minimal agar containing PET as the sole carbon. A morphological examination was carried out. Potential PET-degrading enzyme sequences from the isolates and other microalgae were analyzed for homology using BLASTP and TBLASTN, and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) was performed to assess conserved domains. Six isolates were obtained. Two isolates grew around the PET film but did not grow sufficiently in other areas of the minimal agar. Two other isolates with greenish pigmentation flourished around the PET film as well as on other areas of the agar. One of the green cells resembled <em>Aphanocapsa</em>, with irregular shapes and occasionally brown dense bodies, while the others looked round like <em>Microcystis</em>. Homology analysis revealed the hypothetical PETases in green cells contained the highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser-His-Asp) at the active site, as always found in alpha-beta hydrolase fold containing enzymes. Microbes isolated from two landfill sites in the vicinity of Dhaka have been adapted to utilize PET as a carbon source. In the future, sequencing and further characterization would be necessary to validate the findings. Microalgal systems demand increased focus, given their potential to offer valuable resources for bioremediation.</p> Sudipta Kundu Swarna Mehmud Al Muntasir M Murshida Mahbub Suraia Nusrin Jesmin Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 13 25 Effect of Seed Pelleting Application of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Germination and Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250158 <p>Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to pellet seeds. Different bacterial strains affect germination and plant growth in varying ways. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of seed pelleting with three strains of bacteria on changes in germination, vigor, seedling growth, and the plant growth of lettuce. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with four repetitions and five treatments: without pelleting (T1), pelleting with CaSO<sub>4</sub>-zeolite only (T2), pelleting with 1×10<sup>7</sup> CFU/mL <em>Stenotrophomonas</em> sp. strain sk3 (T3), pelleting with 1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL<em> Burkholderia</em> sp. strain 3-DB05 (T4), and pelleting with 1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL <em>Enterobacter</em> sp. strain 4-RB05 (T5). <em>Burkholderia</em> sp. and <em>Enterobacter </em>sp. were more effective in producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and pelleting seeds with these strains resulted in higher germination rates and seedling growth compared to unpelleted seeds when tested in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Seed pelleting with 1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL <em>Enterobacter </em>sp. promoted plant growth and resulted in significantly higher leaf and root weight. Therefore, seed pelleting with 1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL<em> Enterobacter</em> sp. strain 4-RB05 is recommended to improve the germination and plant growth of Red Oak Leaf lettuce seeds.</p> Phetcharat Jeephet Nararat Thawong Chuthamat Atnaseo Sutheera Hermhuk Jakkrapong Kangsopa Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 26 33 Feasible Application of PCLake Model to Predict Water Quality in Tropical Reservoirs https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250923 <p>The PCLake model has not previously been used for tropical reservoirs. This study attempted to apply the PCLake model to predict the chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a) in a tropical reservoir in Thailand. Sensitivity analyses were performed for the constants affecting the prediction of Chl-a in the phytoplankton module. The model calibration was performed by using the adjusted value of the most sensitive constant with the observed data from July to December 2020. The effects of the initial trophic state of the reservoir on the simulated Chl-a were evaluated. The results showed that Chl-a were sensitive to six constants. Among these constants, the value of the specific extinction of detritus (cExtSpDet) was adjusted using the calculated values from the typical limnological parameters of the studied reservoir. Statistical analyses of the results of calibration and the subsequent validation with the observed data from February to September 2022 were listed as follows: NSE=0.55 and 0.37, RSR=0.67 and 0.79, and PBIAS=27% and 9%, respectively. The initial trophic state of the reservoir had no influence on the long-term prediction of Chl-a. This preliminary effort indicates that the PCLake model can be used to predict Chl-a, which is representative of algal biomass in tropical reservoirs and is essential to water quality models, without complex modifications.</p> Pongsakorn Wongpipun Sanya Sirivithayapakorn Narumol Vongthanasunthorn Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 34 43 Wood Substitute Material from Coconut Shell Waste and Green Adhesive https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250227 <p>This research aimed to utilise coconut shell waste as a raw material to produce compressed coconut shell sheets by using environmentally friendly adhesive from epoxidized natural latex and gelatinized tapioca starch. The coconut shells were cut into 1-mm particles and mixed with the adhesive. The mixture was then compressed in a 30×30×0.5 cm mould using a hydraulic compression machine at 5 MPa and 170°C for 5 minutes to form a compressed coconut shell sheet. The different ratios of adhesive to coconut shell particles (30, 40, and 50 g) per 100 g of coconut shell and the different ratios of gelatinized tapioca starch and epoxidized natural rubber (ranging from 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, to 4:1 by weight) were examined. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of the coconut shell sheets, respectively. The physical and mechanical properties of the compressed coconut shell sheets were evaluated based on the Thai Industrial Standard (TIS) number 876-2547 for flat pressed particleboards. The results demonstrate successful production of compressed coconut shell sheets from coconut shell waste using the environmentally friendly adhesive. ENR played a role in networking between lignin and cellulose. While GTS improved the strength of the composite using hydrogen bonding. The optimal ratio of adhesive to coconut shell particles was 40 g of the green adhesive per 100 g of coconut shell. The optimal ratio of gelatinized tapioca starch to epoxidized natural rubber was 2:1 by weight. The coconut shell sheets produced from this study were uniform in shape, had unique textures, and met industry standards for wood substitute materials.</p> Ariya Watcharawitthaya Natee Srisawat Siriluk Chiarakorn Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 22 1 44 54 Microplastics in the Water of Batang Anai Estuary, Padang Pariaman Regency, Indonesia: Assessing Effects on Riverine Plastic Load in the Marine Environment https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250289 <p>Microplastic (MP) is one of the most dangerous contaminants due to its ecotoxicological impact on the aquatic environment, aquatic biota, and human health. Defined as particles less than 5 mm, these contaminants originates from either primary or secondary source. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the abundance, shape, color, size, and type of microplastic (MP) polymers. In the process, water samples were collected from 3 distinct points in the Batang Anai River, to obtain MP. Subsequently, analysis was conducted using a microscope and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that the abundance of MP in the water samples ranged from 37-77 particles/L, and the most dominant shapes, colors, and sizes identified were fragments (49.44%), black (48%), and sizes &gt;1,000 µm (33%), respectively. Characterization and interpretation of functional groups in the FTIR spectrum indicated the presence of cellulose polymer, ethylene-propylene copolymer, neoprene, and polyester. In conclusion, this report can be used as initial information to help control plastic waste pollution.</p> Suparno Suparno Deswati Deswati Wiya Elsa Fitri Hilfi Pardi Adewirli Putra Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 55 64 Effect of Farming Systems on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Crop Yield of Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) in Irrigated Rice Field https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/250183 <p>Carbon sequestration is obtained from the total accumulation of the element in both soil and plants. The enhancement has the capacity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and influence soil quality and fertility, thereby affecting plant biomass and crop yield. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the total carbon sequestration in rice field with different farming systems, determine soil characteristics, and identify the correlation between the total carbon sequestration and impact on rice yield. An exploratory-descriptive method was used through field survey and laboratory analysis. The locations were mapped by overlaying the Indonesian landform map of the Girimarto District with various rice field systems, soil types, and slopes. Furthermore, the 12 Land Mapping Units (LMU) with 3-time repetitions resulted in 36 sampling points. Data were processed by calculating total carbon sequestration and statistical tests such as one-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. The results showed that rice field farming systems affected the total carbon sequestration. Organic farming had the highest total carbon sequestration value of 72.49 Mg/ha and the increase had a strongly positive correlation with crop yield of paddy. Crop yield in organic farming were higher than in semi-organic and conventional systems by 8.92 tons/ha. Factors that determined total carbon sequestration were soil C-organic and microbial biomass C. The suggested improvement recommendations were the transition of conventional and semi-organic farming as well as adding a variety of organic fertilizers such as biofertilizers.</p> Mujiyo Mujiyo Suciati Dwi Nuraeni Jauhari Syamsiyah Aktavia Herawati Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 65 75 Spatial Green Space Assessment in Suburbia: Implications for Urban Development https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/249887 <p>Nonthaburi, a suburban province adjacent to the Bangkok Metropolis, has experienced a reduction in green spaces due to urban expansion. This study quantified Nonthaburi’s green space through visual interpretation of land use and land cover (LULC) using THEOS and Sentinel-2. Areas of green space were extracted using remote sensing indices and pixel-based classification based on THEOS. The extracted green area was then integrated with the existing LULC patterns to align with the green space characteristic established by Thailand’s Office of Natural Resource and Environmental Policy and Planning. This includes public services, functional utility, median strips, community economics, fallow, and natural green space. The analysis of green space management and planning utilized the Urban Green Space Index (UGSI), Per Capita Green Space (PCGS), and accessibility to public green space. The results revealed that Nonthaburi comprises a green space area of 465.29 km<sup>2 </sup>or 73.06%, exhibiting a higher prevalence within its western region while displaying a relatively lower extent in the urban zone adjacent to the Bangkok Metropolis. The per capita green space is 367.71 m<sup>2</sup> but decreases to 255.82 m<sup>2</sup> when accounting for the latent population, meaning it still meets the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Currently, only six parks (single and clusters) meet the criteria for public green space. Additionally, both fallow and median strip green spaces (at road interchanges) need to be considered for their potential use in new public service. Furthermore, very high-resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) should be used for green space planning by the organization.</p> Sura Pattanakiat Sirasit Vongvassana Thamarat Phutthai Pisut Nakmuenwai Theerawut Chiyanon Voravart Ratanadilok Na Bhuket Thunyapat Sattraburut Pathomphot Chinsawadphan Kajornsak Khincharung Copyright (c) 2024 Environment and Natural Resources Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-15 2024-01-15 22 1 76 92