Effects of Acetic Acid from Fermented Excess Sludge of Biogas Processes and Alkalinity from Pig Manure to Phosphorus Removal

  • Chatlada Piasai Institute of Engineering 111, Thanon Maha Witthayalai, Suranari, Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000
  • Nittaya Boontian ผู้ช่วยศาสตราจารย์ สาขาวิชาวิศวกรรมสิ่งแวดล้อม สำนักวิศวกรรมศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี
  • Thunchanok Phorndon นักศึกษา หลักสูตรวิศวกรรมศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต สาขาวิศวกรรมสิ่งแวดล้อม มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี
  • Mohamad Padri นักศึกษา หลักสูตรวิศวกรรมศาสตรดุษฎีบัณฑิต สาขาวิศวกรรมสิ่งแวดล้อม มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีสุรนารี
Keywords: Acetic acid, Fermented excess sludge of biogas, Phosphorus


The aim of this project was to determinate the phosphorus removal (P) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system. The process used acetic acid and alkalinity from fermented excess sludge of biogas processes (FES) and pig manure (PM), respectively. This study varied 3 types of wastewater. Type 1 and 2 were designed with source of acetic acid from the ratio of CH3COONa: FES in 4.33: 1 and 1.50: 1, respectively and alkalinity of type 2 was controlled with PM. Type 3 had source of acetic acid from only FES and the alkalinity was controlled by adding PM and NaHCO3. The processes were conducted in 60 days SRT. The COD removal of all types was higher than 99%. On the other hand, TKN removal in type 1 and 3 were higher than 95%. However, TKN removal of type 2 was found to be the lowest (79.02%). The Low TKN removal in type 2 is suspected due to the low proportion of COD: TN (10.63: 1) which resulting insufficient amount of organic carbon to remove TKN.  Ortho-P removal was 61.34%, 51.17% and 55.68% in Type 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Therefore, Type 3 is expected to remove P effectively. The result showed the possibility to occupy low cost source of both alkalinity and acetic acid sources


Download data is not yet available.


Ministry of natural resources and environment [Internet]. 2018 [updated 2018; cited 2018 Oct 21]. Available from: waste.onep.go.th/wwt.php. Thai.

Pollution control department, ministry of natural resources and environment [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Apr 7; cited 2017 Oct 16]. Available from: http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/reg_std_water04.html. Thai.

Guerrero J, Guisasola A, Baeza JA. Controlled crude glycerol dosage to prevent EBPR failures in C/N/P removal WWTPs. Chem. Eng. J. 2015; 271: 114–127.

Wei Y, Wang S, Ma B, Li X, Yuan Z, He Y, Peng Y. The effect of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates degradation rate on nitrous oxide production in a denitrifying phosphorus removal system. Bioresour. Technol. 2014; 170: 175-182.

Wang R, Peng Y, Cheng Z, Ren N. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system. Bioresour. Technol. 2014; 169: 307-312.

Chaiyaphan W, Khiriratnikom S, Intharangsang N. Study of microbial community and the possibility on saline enhanced biological phosphorus removal using sequencing batch reactor system. Master of science degree in biology. Thaksin University. 2007; 722 pp. Thai.

Hoang PH, Nguyen HT, Tran TT, Tran TT, Do LP, Le TNC. Isolation and selection of nitrifying bacteria with high biofilm formation for treatment of ammonium polluted aquaculture water. J. Viet. Env. 2016; 8(1): 33-40.

Wen WL, Hai LZ, Guo PS, Han QY. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Water. Res. 2015; 1-11.

Guerrero J, Guisasola A, Baeza JA. The nature of the carbon source rules the competition between PAO and denitrifiers in systems for simultaneous biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Water. Res. 2011; 45(16): 4793-4802.

Ehab MR, Maha ME, Mohamed AH, Ahmed MN. Application of contact stabilization activated sludge for enhancing biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in domestic wastewater. HBRC Journal. 2013; 10: 92–99.

Kee FL, Tadashi S, Ying HO, Adeline SMC, Hak KY, Pei YH. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization for efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperatures. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2015; 38: 729–737.

Broughton A, Pratt S, Shilton A. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal for high-strength wastewater with a low rbCOD:P ratio. Bioresour. Technol. 2008; 99: 1236-1241.

Tayà C, Garlapati VK, Guisasola A, Baeza JA. The selective role of nitrite in the PAO/GAO competition. Chemosphere. 2013; 93: 612-618.

Liu X, Xiang L, Song Y, Qian F, Meng X. The effects and mechanism of alkalinity on the phosphate recovery from anaerobic digester effluent using dolomite lime. Environ. Earth Sci. 2015; 73(9): 5067-5073.

Yin D, Liu W, Zhai N, Feng Y, Yang G, Wang X, et al. Production of Bio-Energy from Pig Manure: A Focus on the Dynamics Change of Four Parameters under Sunlight-Dark Conditions. PLOS ONE. 2015; 10(5): 1-12.

Andole OH, Lei Z, Zhang Z, Raude J, Kanali C. Optimization of Biogas Production in Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Manure by the Use of Alkalinity Index to Monitor a Prototype Cylindrical Digester. Sustainable. Energy. 2017; 5(1): 32-37.

Pai TY, Ouyang CF, Su JL, Leu HG. Modelling the steady-state effluent characteristics of the TNCU process under different return mixed liquid. Appl. Math. Model. 2001; 25(12): 1025-1038.

Pan YW, Maneesha PG, Anna HK, Ralf CR, David CS Ka YC. Simultaneous phosphorus uptake and denitrification by EBPR-r biofilm under aerobic conditions: effect of dissolved oxygen. Wat. Sci. Tech. 2015; 72.7: 1147-1154.

Boontian N, Using the activated sludge model 2D (ASM2D) to understand and predict the phosphorus accumulating organisms mechanish in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in relation to distegrated sludge as a carbon source, Cranfield Water Science Institute. 2012.

Jiuxiao H, Hui W. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature. Bioresour. Technol. 2015; 175: 367-373.

He ZW, Yang CX, Wang L, Guo ZC, Wang AJ, Liu WZ. Feasibility of short-term fermentation for short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge at initial pH10: Role and significance of rhamnolipid. Chem. Eng. J. 2016; 290: 125-135.

Li X, Chen H, Hu L, Yu L, Chen Y, Gu G. Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011; 45(5): 1834-1839.

Deng L, Zheng P, Chen Z, Mahmood Q. Improvement in post-treatment of digested swine wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2008; 99(8): 3136–3145.

Seyoum YG, Marc WB, David C, Thomas FH. Effects of glucose on the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal activated sludge enriched with acetate. Bioresour. Technol. 2012; 121: 19-24.

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation,Eaton AD. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington DC: 2005.

Smolders GJF, Meij J, Van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ. Model of the anaerobic metabolism of the biological phosphorus removal process: stoichiometry and pH influence. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1994; 43: 461–470.

Filipe CDM, Daigger GT, Grady CPL. Stoichiometry and kinetics of acetate uptake under anaerobic conditions by an enriched culture of phosphorus-accumulating organisms at different pHs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2001; 76(1): 32–43.

Venter SL, Halliday J, Pitman AR. Optimisation of the Johannesburg Olifantsvlei extended aeration plant for phosphorus removal. Progress in Water Technology. 1978; 10(1- 2): 279–292.

Hascoet MC, Florentz M. Influence of nitrates on biological phosphorus removal from wastewater. Water South African. 1985; 11(1): 1–8.

Henze M, Gujer W, Mino T, van Loosdrecht MCM. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3. reprint ed. London : IWA Publishing, 2000; 121 p.

Merzouki M, Bernet NP, Delgenès J, Benlemlih M. Effect of prefermentation on denitrifying phosphorus removal in slaughterhouse wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2005; 96: 1317-1322.

Piasai C, Boontian N, Yingchon U, Phondon T, Padri M. in the process, Study of optimum conditions to produce acetic acid from various excess sludge for using in biological phosphorus removal processes, Science and Technology Journal. Thai.

Tam NFY, Leung, GLW, Wong YS. The effects of external carbon loading on nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors. Wat. Sci. Tech. 1994; 30(6): 73–81.

Wang X, Wang S, Xue T, Li B, Dai X, Peng Y. Treating low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) wastewater in simultaneous nitrification-endogenous denitrification and phosphorous removal (SNDPR) systems by strengthening anaerobic intracellular carbon storage. Water. Res. 2015; 77: 191–200.

Yang X, Peng Y, Ren N, Guo J, Tang X, Song J. Nutrient removal performance and microbial community structure in an EBPR system under the limited filamentous bulking state. Bioresour. Technol. 2013; 144: 86-93.

Bond PL, Keller J, Blackall LL. Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal: a possible mechanism of intracellular pH control. Biotech. Bioeng. 1999; 63: 507–515.

Tasli R, Artan N, Orhon D. The influence of different substrates on enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor.] Wat. Sci. Tech. 1997; 35(1): 75-80.