Radio-Heat Contrasts of UAVs and Their Weather Variability at 12 GHz, 20 GHz, 34 GHz, and 94 GHz Frequencies

Main Article Content

Nikolay Ruzhentsev
Simeon Zhyla
Vladimir Pavlikov
Valerii Volosyuk
Eduard Tserne
Anatoliy Popov
Oleksandr Shmatko
Ivan Ostroumov
Nataliia Kuzmenko
Kostiantyn Dergachov
Olga Sushchenko
Yuliya Averyanova
Maksym Zaliskyi
Oleksandr Solomentsev
Olena Havrylenko
Borys Kuznetsov
Tatyana Nikitina

Abstract

This work describes the procedure for determining the expected values of UAV radio-heat contrasts (gif.latex?\Delta&space;T) and discusses its angular dependences, as well as the estimation of UAV detection distances at four points cm and mm ranges (12 GHz, 20 GHz, 34 GHz, and 94 GHz). This paper reveals the pronounced frequency dependence on brightness temperature (gif.latex?T_{b}) and gif.latex?\Delta&space;T of a fiberglass unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) made from composite fiberglass materials. The quantified experiments are conducted against a sky background under various weather conditions and wave ranges. The qualitative physical interpretation of these properties and their frequency dependence is proposed, reflecting the coefficient values and radio brightness of the background. The weak influence of weather on the observed UAVs in the X and Ku bands are demonstrated along with the multiple decreasing detection characteristics and advantages of the W band under bad weather conditions (the appearance of rain or thick cloud). This work presents data on the values of UAV contrasts, observed against the background of the sky and the regularities noted could be useful for predicting the effectiveness of the proposed radiometric detection and tracking system.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ruzhentsev, N., Zhyla, S., Pavlikov, V., Volosyuk, V., Tserne, E., Popov, A., Shmatko, O., Ostroumov, I., Kuzmenko, N., Dergachov, K., Sushchenko, O., Averyanova, Y., Zaliskyi, M., Solomentsev, O., Havrylenko, O., Kuznetsov, B., & Nikitina, T. (2022). Radio-Heat Contrasts of UAVs and Their Weather Variability at 12 GHz, 20 GHz, 34 GHz, and 94 GHz Frequencies. ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications, 20(2), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.37936/ecti-eec.2022202.246878
Section
Publish Article

References

L. Sommer, A. Schumann, T. Muller, T. Schuchert, and J. Beyerer, “Flying object detection for automatic UAV recognition,” in 2017 14th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS), 2017.

C. Aker and S. Kalkan, “Using deep networks for drone detection,” in 2017 14th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS), 2017.

H. Liu, Z. Wei, Y. Chen, J. Pan, L. Lin, and Y. Ren, “Drone detection based on an audio-assisted camera array,” in 2017 IEEE Third International Conference on Multimedia Big Data (BigMM), 2017, pp. 402–406.

B. Jang, Y. Seo, B. On, and S. Im, “Euclidean distance based algorithm for UAV acoustic detection,” in 2018 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC), 2018.

J. Vilímek and L. Buřita, “Ways for copter drone acustic detection,” in 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT), 2017, pp. 349–353.

J. Ochodnický, Z. Matousek, M. Babjak, and J. Kurty, “Drone detection by ku-band battlefield radar,” in 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT), 2017, pp. 613–616.

M. Jahangir and C. Baker, “Robust detection of micro-UAS drones with l-band 3-d holographic radar,” in 2016 Sensor Signal Processing for Defence (SSPD), 2016.

S. Björklund, “Target detection and classification of small drones by boosting on radar micro-doppler,” in 2018 15th European Radar Conference (EuRAD), 2018, pp. 182–185.

C. Liang, N. Cao, X. Lu, and Y. Ye, “UAV detection using continuous wave radar,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP), 2018.

J. Klare, O. Biallawons, and D. Cerutti-Maori, “UAV detection with MIMO radar,” in 2017 18th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2017.

B. Nuss, L. Sit, M. Fennel, J. Mayer, T. Mahler, and T. Zwick, “MIMO OFDM radar system for drone detection,” in 2017 18th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2017.

I. V. Ostroumov, N. S. Kuzmenko, and K. Marais, “Optimal pair of navigational aids selection,” in 2018 IEEE 5th International Conference on Methods and Systems of Navigation and Motion Control (MSNMC), 2018, pp. 32–35.

N. S. Kuzmenko and I. V. Ostroumov, “Performance analysis of positioning system by navigational aids in three dimensional space,” in 2018 IEEE First International Conference on System Analysis & Intelligent Computing (SAIC), 2018.

Y.-K. Kwag, I.-S. Woo, H.-Y. Kwak, and Y.-H. Jung, “Multi-mode SDR radar platform for small air-vehicle drone detection,” in 2016 CIE International Conference on Radar (RADAR), 2016.

S. J. Lee, J. H. Jung, and B. Park, “Possibility verification of drone detection radar based on pseudo random binary sequence,” in 2016 International SoC Design Conference (ISOCC), 2016, pp. 291–292.

S. Deligeorges, G. Cakiades, J. George, Y. Wang, and F. Doyle, “A mobile self synchronizing smart sensor array for detection and localization of impulsive threat sources,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), 2015, pp. 351–356.

C. Schupbach, C. Patry, F. Maasdorp, U. Boniger, and P. Wellig, “Micro-UAV detection using DAB-based passive radar,” in 2017 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf), 2017, pp. 1037–1040.

G. Fang, J. Yi, X. Wan, Y. Liu, and H. Ke, “Experimental research of multistatic passive radar with a single antenna for drone detection,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 33 542–33 551, 2018.

B. Knoedler, R. Zemmari, and W. Koch, “On the detection of small UAV using a GSM passive coherent location system,” in 2016 17th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2016.

P. Andraši, T. Radišić, M. Muštra, and J. Ivošević, “Night-time detection of UAVs using thermal infrared camera,” Transportation Research Procedia, vol. 28, pp. 183–190, 2017.

H. J. Liebe, “MPM—an atmospheric millimeter-wave propagation model,” International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 631–650, Jun. 1989.

Attenuation due to clouds and fog, Rec. ITU-R P.840-8, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, Switzerland, Aug. 2019.

V.M. Lipinsky, V.A. Dyachuk, V.M. Babichenko, Eds., Climate of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine: Raevsky Publishing House (in Russian), 2003.

O. Odokienko et al., “Cumulative distribution of rain rate and rain attenuation in ukraine,” in 2019 3rd International Conference on Advanced Information and Communications Technologies (AICT), 2019, pp. 62–66.

S. Zhyla et al., “Cumulative functions of vertical atmospheric attenuation of millimeter radio waves over kharkov,” (in Russia), Radiotekhnika, vol. 4, no. 199, pp. 83–90, Dec. 2019.

V. K. Volosyuk, S. S. Zhyla, V. V. Pavlikov, A. D. Abramov, and V. G. Yakovlev, “Optimum algorithm for estimating radio brightness in spatially distributed radiometer systems,” Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, vol. 77, no. 18, pp. 1649–1658, 2018.

L. B. Knyaz’kov and N. V. Ruzhentsev, “Quasioptical polarization multipath diplexer,” International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 211–217, Jan. 2006.

L. B. Knyaz’kov and N. V. Ruzhentsev, “Quasi-optical diplexer and filter based on a polarization ring interferometer,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 761–763, Sep. 2007.

L. B. Knyaz’kov and N. V. Ruzhentsev, “Foamydielectric lens transmission lines for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range,” Technical Physics Letters, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 888–890, Oct. 2008.

N. V. Ruzhentsev and Y. A. Kuzmenko, “Flare angle changes antenna of the millimeter wave band,” International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 779–784, Apr. 1996.

“Low Noise Amplifiers.” MI-WAVE. https://www.miwv.com/low-noise-amplifiers/

Z. Chen, H. Gao, D. M. Leenaerts, D. Milosevic, and P. G. Baltus, “A 16–43 GHz low-noise amplifier with 2.5–4.0 dB noise figure,” in 2016 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC), 2016, pp. 349–352.