Two-Axis Solar Tracker Applied With All-Electric Ship

Main Article Content

Nattapon Boonyapakdee

Abstract

The all-electric ship (AES) offers new hope for the reduction of fuel consumption and carbon emissions. To fully exploit the photovoltaics (PVs) installed on the AES, the two-axis solar tracker is proposed to find the best tilt and surface azimuth angles of PV panels. The tilt angle is computed by particle swarm optimization (PSO) regarding the time and ship location. The surface azimuth angle is adjusted according to the hemisphere. The dynamic performance of the proposed solar tracker is evaluated using MATLAB/Simulink simulation. According to the simulation results, the proposed solar tracker can obtain maximum energy all day, while the voyage time, fuel consumption, and carbon emissions are significantly reduced. Moreover, the proposed solar tracker can effectively operate under communication delay caused by the global positioning system (GPS).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Boonyapakdee, N. (2022). Two-Axis Solar Tracker Applied With All-Electric Ship. ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications, 20(2), 216–224. https://doi.org/10.37936/ecti-eec.2022202.246905
Section
Publish Article

References

D. Naletina and E. Perkov, “The economic importance of maritime shipping with special reference on Croatia,” in Proceeding of 19th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social, Melbourne, Australia, 2017.

D. Richardson, N. Castree, M. F. Goodchild, A. Kobayashi, W. Liu, and R. A. Marston, Eds., The International Encyclopedia of Geography. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

M. M. Rahim, M. T. Islam, and S. Kuruppu, “Regulating global shipping corporations’ accountability for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the seas,” Marine Policy, vol. 69, pp. 159–170, Jul. 2016.

S. Fang, Y. Xu, Z. Li, Z. Ding, L. Liu, and H. Wang, “Optimal sizing of shipboard carbon capture system for maritime greenhouse emission control,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 5543–5553, Nov. 2019.

Revised MARPOL Annex VI: Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships and NOx Technical Code. London, UK: International Maritime Organization, 2008.

A. Kurniawan and E. Shintaku, “Control of photovoltaic system connected to DC bus in all-electric ship,” in 2017 International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics, Intelligent Manufacture, and Industrial Automation (ICAMIMIA), 2017, pp. 110–115.

A. Accetta and M. Pucci, “Energy management system in DC micro-grids of smart ships: Main gen-set fuel consumption minimization and fault compensation,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 3097–3113, May 2019.

J. Han, J.-F. Charpentier, and T. Tang, “An energy management system of a fuel cell/battery hybrid boat,” Energies, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2799–2820, 2014.

A. M. Bassam, A. B. Phillips, S. R. Turnock, and P. A. Wilson, “An improved energy management strategy for a hybrid fuel cell/battery passenger vessel,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 47, pp. 22 453–22 464, Dec. 2016.

A. M. Bassam, A. B. Phillips, S. R. Turnock, and P. A. Wilson, “Development of a multi-scheme energy management strategy for a hybrid fuel cell driven passenger ship,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 623–635, Jan. 2017.

M. Kalikatzarakis, R. Geertsma, E. Boonen, K. Visser, and R. Negenborn, “Ship energy management for hybrid propulsion and power supply with shore charging,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 76, pp. 133–154, Jul. 2018.

M. D. Al-Falahi, K. S. Nimma, S. D. Jayasinghe, H. Enshaei, and J. M. Guerrero, “Power management optimization of hybrid power systems in electric ferries,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 172, pp. 50–66, Sep. 2018.

E. A. Sciberras, B. Zahawi, D. J. Atkinson, A. Breijs, and J. H. van Vugt, “Managing shipboard energy: A stochastic approach special issue on marine systems electrification,” IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 538–546, Dec. 2016.

S. Paran, T. V. Vu, T. E. Mezyani, and C. S. Edrington, “MPC-based power management in the shipboard power system,” in 2015 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS), 2015, pp. 14–18.

F. D. Kanellos, A. Anvari-Moghaddam, and J. M. Guerrero, “A cost-effective and emission-aware power management system for ships with integrated full electric propulsion,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 150, pp. 63–75, Sep. 2017.

R. Tang, X. Li, and J. Lai, “A novel optimal energy-management strategy for a maritime hybrid energy system based on large-scale global optimization,” Applied Energy, vol. 228, pp. 254–264, Oct. 2018.

K. Nimma, M. Al-Falahi, H. D. Nguyen, S. D. G. Jayasinghe, T. Mahmoud, and M. Negnevitsky, “Grey wolf optimization-based optimum energy-management and battery-sizing method for grid-connected microgrids,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 4, 2018, Art. no. 847.

M. D. Al-Falahi, S. D. Jayasinghe, and H. Enshaei, “Hybrid algorithm for optimal operation of hybrid energy systems in electric ferries,” Energy, vol. 187, Nov. 2019, Art. no. 115923.

S. Fang, Y. Xu, S. Wen, T. Zhao, H. Wang, and L. Liu, “Data-driven robust coordination of generation and demand-side in photovoltaic integrated all-electric ship microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1783–1795, May 2020.

Q. Xu, B. Yang, Q. Han, Y. Yuan, C. Chen, and X. Guan, “Optimal power management for failure mode of MVDC microgrids in all-electric ships,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 1054–1067, Mar. 2019.

B. Zahedi and L. E. Norum, “Modeling and simulation of all-electric ships with low-voltage DC hybrid power systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 4525–4537, Oct. 2013.

S. Fang, Y. Wang, B. Gou, and Y. Xu, “Toward future green maritime transportation: An overview of seaport microgrids and all-electric ships,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 207–219, Jan. 2020.

M. A. Igder, M. Rafiei, J. Boudjadar, and M.-H. Khooban, “Reliability and safety improvement of emission-free ships: Systemic reliability-centered maintenance,” IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 256–266, Mar. 2021.

S. Wen, H. Lan, Y.-Y. Hong, D. C. Yu, L. Zhang, and P. Cheng, “Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system,” Applied Energy, vol. 175, pp. 158–167, Aug. 2016.

S. Fang, B. Gou, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, C. Shang, and H. Wang, “Optimal hierarchical management of shipboard multibattery energy storage system using a data-driven degradation model,” IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1306–1318, Dec. 2019.

S. Wen, T. Zhao, Y. Tang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, and Y. Huang, “A joint photovoltaic-dependent navigation routing and energy storage system sizing scheme for more efficient all-electric ships,” IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1279–1289, Sep. 2020.

Z. Zhen et al., “The effects of inclined angle modification and diffuse radiation on the sun-tracking photovoltaic system,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1410–1415, Sep. 2017.

J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th ed. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

C. Stanciu and D. Stanciu, “Optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors all over the world – a declination dependence formula and comparisons of three solar radiation models,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 81, pp. 133–143, May 2014.

A. Wesabi Ibrahim et al., “PV maximum power-point tracking using modified particle swarm optimization under partial shading conditions,” Chinese Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 106–121, Dec. 2020.

Q. Zhao and C. Li, “Two-stage multi-swarm particle swarm optimizer for unconstrained and constrained global optimization,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 124 905–124 927, Jul. 2020.

S. Biswas, S. G. Anavatti, and M. A. Garratt, “A particle swarm optimization based path planning method for autonomous systems in unknown terrain,” in 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industry 4.0, Artificial Intelligence, and Communications Technology (IAICT), 2019, pp. 57–63.

R. B. A. Koad, A. F. Zobaa, and A. El-Shahat, “A novel MPPT algorithm based on particle swarm optimization for photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 468–476, Apr. 2017.

M. Clerc, Particle Swarm Optimization. London, UK: ISTE, 2006.

Z. Li, Y. Xu, S. Fang, X. Zheng, and X. Feng, “Robust coordination of a hybrid AC/DC multi-energy ship microgrid with flexible voyage and thermal loads,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 2782–2793, Jul. 2020.

F. D. Kanellos, “Optimal power management with GHG emissions limitation in all-electric ship power systems comprising energy storage systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 330–339, Jan. 2014.

C. Shang, D. Srinivasan, and T. Reindl, “Economic and environmental generation and voyage scheduling of all-electric ships,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 4087–4096, Sep. 2016.

H. Umland, “A short guide to celestial navigation.” [Online]. Available: https://celnav.de/

H. Lan, S. Wen, Y.-Y. Hong, D. C. Yu, and L. Zhang, “Optimal sizing of hybrid PV/diesel/battery in ship power system,” Applied Energy, vol. 158, pp. 26–34, Nov. 2015.

A. Hornbostel, “Propagation problems in satellite navigation,” URSI Radio Science Bulletin, vol. 2009, no. 329, pp. 21–30, Jun. 2009.

L. Bowen and Y. Danya, “Calculation of vehicle real-time position overcoming the GPS positioning latency with MEMS INS,” in Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (SOLI), 2014, pp. 248–254.

R. B. Langley, “RTK GPS,” GPS World, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 70–76, Sep. 1998.