Comparison of fattening Thai native steers on grassland grazing and in feedlot fed corn silage-base with supplemental two protein concentration diets

Main Article Content

Kecha Kuha


This study determined growth performance and blood biochemical values of Thai native steers during 120 days of fattening. Twelve healthy three-year-old steers were assigned equally into two groups. One group was allowed free grazing on grassland improved mainly with purple guinea grass (Panicum maximum), and the other group was reared in feedlot fed with corn silage-base. Both groups supplemented with different crude protein concentrate diets due with 12 and 14 percent of about 1 percent of the bodyweight a day. The results found that steers on grassland were significantly higher average daily gain than those steers reared under feedlot conditions. There was no significant difference in these values between steers supplemented with either of the two protein diets. Blood biochemical values at the end of the trial were not significantly different for the steers fed with different dietary treatments. Glucose, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, mean corpuscular volume and, mean corpuscular hemoglobin after the trial increased, but free serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine decreased and differed significantly from the values at the beginning of the trial. Other blood biochemical values, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate serum transferase, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were not significantly different between the inception and the conclusion of the trial. Differences in dietary protein supplementation caused no differences in the blood biochemical values of the steers. These results imply that the Thai native steer should fatten on grassland with a 1 percent BW dietary supplemental concentrate of 12 percent of CP.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kuha, K. (2020). Comparison of fattening Thai native steers on grassland grazing and in feedlot fed corn silage-base with supplemental two protein concentration diets. Journal of Science and Agricultural Technology, 1(2), 14–20.
Research Article


Aengwanich, W., A. Chantiratikul and S. Pamok. 2009. Effect of Seasonal Variations on Hematological Values and Health Monitor of Crossbred Beef Cattle at Slaughterhouse in Northeastern Part of Thailand. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 5(5): 644-648.

Angkulasearanee, T. and C. Wattanachant. 2010. A preliminary study: Condition for the marketing and native cattle in Songkhla. Agri. Ann. Rep. Khon Kaen Univ., Khon Kaen, pp 89-91.

Boonprong, S., A. Choothesa, C. Sribhen, N. Parvizi and C. Vajrabukka. 2007a. Relationship between haemoglobin types and productivity of Thai native and Simmental×Brahman crossbred cattle. Lives. Sci. 111: 213-217.

Boonprong, S., C. Sribhen, A. Choothesa, N. Parvizi and C. Vajrabukka. 2007b. Blood Biochemical Profiles of Thai Native and Simmental × Brahman Crossbred Cattle in the Central Thailand. J. Vet. Med., Series A. 54: 62-65.

Bunseelarp, W., W. Ngampongsai and P. Chanjula. 2010. Effect of different levels of soybean meal supplementation with Sago palm on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation process of native cattle. Proc. of the 11th Khon Kean Univ. Ann. Conf., Khon Kean, pp 146-149.

Buttery, P. J. 1983. Hormonal control of protein deposition in animals”, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 42: 137.

Chantiratikul, A., S. Chumpawadee, W. Kanchanamayoon and P. Chantiratikul. 2009. Effect of dietary protein on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Thai native heifers. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8(2) : 297-300.

Drouillard, J.S., C. L Ferrell, T. J. Klopfenstein and R. A. Britton. 1991. Compensatory growth following metabolizable protein or energy restrictions in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69 : 811-418.

Duanyai, S. 2010. Carcass quality and nutrient composition of Thai native beef under the differences of natural production. King Mongkut’s Agric. J. 28(2) : 9-16. (In Thai)

Ellenberger, M. A., D. E. Johnson, G. E. Carstens, K. L. Hossner, M. D. Holland, T. M. Nett and C. F. Nockels. 1989. Endocrine and metabolic changes during altered growth rates in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 67 : 1446–1454.

Hall, J.B., R.B. Staigmiller, R.A. Bellows, R.E. Short, W.M. Mosely and S.E. Bellows. 1995. Body composition and metabolic profiles associated with puberty in Beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci., 73 : 3409-3420.

Harnsamer, A., S. Chumpawadee, V. Rattanaphun, C. Prasert, U. Saenkhunthow, I. Phaowphaisal and A. Chantiratikul. 2010. Evaluation of crude protein and metabolizable energy requirements for growth of Thai native heifers. Proc. of the 11th Khon Kean Univ. Ann. Conf. Khon Kean, pp 142-145.

Hersom, M. J., R. P. Wettemann, C. R. Krehbiel, G. W. Horn and D. H. Keisler. 2004. Effect of live weight gain of steers during winter grazing: III. Blood metabolites and hormones during feedlot finishing. J. Anim. Sci., 82 : 2059-2068.

Horton, G.M.J. and W. Holmes. 1978. Compensatory growth by beef cattle at grassland or on an Alfalfa-based diet. J. Anim. Sci. 46 : 297-303.

Jain, N. C. 1996. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 5th revised eds., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

Kaewpila, C., M. Otsuka and K. Sommart. 2010. Metabolizable energy and protein requirement for maintenance and gain of Thai native cattle. Proc. of 11th Khon Kean Univ. Ann. Conf., Khon Kean, pp 154-157. (In Thai)

Kaneko, J. J., J. W. Harvey and M. L. Bruss. 1997. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th revised eds., Academic Press, Inc. NY.

Kawashima, T. 2002. Role of native ruminants in establishment of sustainable agricultural systems in Northeast Thailand. JIRCAS working report No. 30, Ibaraki.

Kita, K., M. Oka and H. Yokota. 2003. Dietary fatty acid increases body weight gain without a change in rumen fermentation in fattening cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(1) : 39-43.

Kuha, K., S. Tumwasorn and P. Wongsrisom. 2009. Blood biochemical examination of Nan native and Brahman crossbred cattle in Nan province. Proc. of Inter. Conf. on the Role of Univ. in Hand-on Educ. Chiang Mai, pp 186-195.

Kumar, R. and R. S. Dass. 2006. Effect of niacin supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and blood biochemical profile in male buffalo calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(10) : 1422-1428.

Murphy, T. A. and S. C. Loerch. 1994. Effects of restricted feeding of growing steers on performance, carcass characteristics, and composition. J. Anim. Sci. 72 : 2497–2507.

Pakeechay, K., C. Wattanachant and T. Angkulasearanee. 2014. Marketing channels of beef cattle in the lower southern region of Thailand. Kasetsart J. (Soc. Sci.). 35 : 312-325.

SAS. 1999. SAS user's guide: Statistics (Version 8.01 Ed.). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, N.C.

Sethakul, C., Y. Opatpatharakij, P. Intarapornudom and P. Tawichsee. 2010. Beef quality of Native cattle and crossbred beef cattle under different in production system and chilling periods. King Mongkut’s Agric. J. 28(2) : 17-25. (In Thai)

Tumwasorn, S. 2002. Beef Cattle Production: The Approach to Development Career of Thai Farmer. 3rd eds. Uksornsiam Printing and Publishing, Bangkok. (In Thai)

Tumwasorn, S. 2007. Effect of amount of concentrate on profit margin in fattening beef cattle to avoid poverty under Thai village conditions. Proc. of the 45th Kasetsart Univ. Ann. Conf.: Anim. and Vet. Med. Bangkok, pp 80-86. (In Thai)

Wanapat, M. C., Wachirapakorn, S. Chanchai, C. Wattanachan, S. Thawinpawat, W. Toburan, S. Wongsrikeao and P. Sombatchaisak. 1995. A study feeding system of beef cattle for small-holder farmer at village level. Proc. of the 33th Kasetsart Univ. Ann. Conf.: Anim. and Vet. Med. Bangkok, pp 299-309. (In Thai)

WTSR. 2008. Nutrient Requirement of Beef Cattle in Thailand. Klungnana Vitthaya Press, Khon Kaen. (In Thai)