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Novel polyurethane adhesive was successfully synthesized from used palm oil (UPO) and was further tested for preparing particleboard based on rubberwood sawdust. Modified used palm oil (MUPO) was synthesized via epoxidation and hydroxylation in a single step. The reaction time of 2-8 hours was studied. The chemical structure of MUPO was confirmed by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The highest OH value of MUPO was 180 mgKOH/g with 8 h of reaction time. The new particleboard based on rubberwood sawdust bonded with polyurethane adhesive based on used palm oil was prepared. The effects of polyurethane adhesive content (25 – 60 %wt of rubberwood sawdust), NCO index (100 -180), and Triphenyl phosphate content (10 – 30 %wt of adhesive) used as flame retardant were investigated. It was observed that the particle board had a perfect shape with a range of polyurethane adhesive 45 – 60 % wt of rubberwood sawdust. Increasing the polyurethane adhesive content and increasing the NCO index gave an excellent binding with a high bending strength, the high elastic modulus of particle board, and increasing water resistance. Moreover, adding flame retardant 30 %wt of adhesive improved flame retardant properties of the composite board with pass the UL-94 for the V-0 test. These results demonstrated that polyol based on used palm oil can be used as adhesive polyurethane that can serve as a binder for composite particleboard.
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