Optimizing Extruded Snack Production from Germinated Med Fai Brown Rice by Using Response Surface Methodology
Keywords:Extrusion, Extruded snacks, Germination, Med Fai rice, Response surface methodology
The aim of this study was to increase the value of Med Fai brown rice through germination and extrusion for production of healthy snacks. The physical and chemical properties of germinated Med Fai brown rice and the optimum extrusion conditions were determined. Med Fai paddy rice was germinated and prepared. The extruded Med Fai brown rice flour was produced using twinscrew extrusion cooking. The effects of process parameters such as germinated rice flour content (2.5-10%), screw speed (400-500 rpm) and die temperature (140-150°C) on extrudate properties were studied. Germination was found to have an influence on the physical and chemical properties of the germinated brown rice flour (GBRF). The Colour value (L* and b*), protein content, fiber content, -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, vitamin B1 and total phenolic content were increased. The hardness, bulk density (BD) and colour values of the extrudates were all influenced by GBRF. Hardness and BD were increased when GBRF and die temperature were increased, but the expansion ratio (ER) and a* value were decreased. The ER and L* values decreased when the screw speed was reduced, but the a* value increased. 5.38% GBRF, 450.58 rpm screw speed and 144.55°C die temperature were the optimal extrusion parameters for germinated extruded snack. The extruded Thai curry-coated snack (Kang Kua) had the highest overall score of 7.67 (moderate to very good). Thus, the nutritional value of Med Fai brown rice flour was increased by germination. Extrusion conditions affected the properties of extruded Med Fai brown rice flour. Germinated Med Fai brown rice flour is suitable as a functional ingredient in snacks.
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