Enhancing Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Content in Germinated Thai Hom Mali Brown Rice by Low Dose Electron Beam Irradiation
Keywords:Electron beam, GABA, Germinated brown rice, Oryza sativa L., X-ray irradiation
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by germination of brown rice, is a nonproteinogenic amino acid, which acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain, induces hypotension and inhibits cancer-cell proliferation. In this study, the GABA content of germinated Thai Hom Mali (Oryza sativa L.) brown rice irradiated at a dose of 1.0 kGy with 10 MeV electron beam and 5 MeV X-ray irradiation was determined by high performance of liquid chromatography (HPLC), after 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage. The content of bioactive compounds such as gamma oryzanol, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. The results showed that at 4-12 months of storage, the 10 MeV electron beam can consistently enhance GABA content with 1.9-2.1 times higher yield than non irradiated groups at 4 and 8 months of storage, respectively. Conversely, GABA was not affected by X-ray irradiation. Neither electron beam irradiation nor X-ray irradiations affected gamma oryzanol, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities such as ferric reducing ability potential and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. These results reveal that electron beam irradiation at a dose of 1.0 kGy, energy of 10 MeV is an effective method for increasing GABA content in Thai Hom Mali germinated brown rice for up to 12 months of storage.
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