Main Article Content
In this present research, rice husk was modified using a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and used as an adsorbent (MRH) to remove methyl orange dye (MO, anionic dye) from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch process to determine the influences of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of adsorbate and adsorbent dose. The kinetic data obtained from different batch experiments were analyzed employing pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion model equations. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The results show that pseudo-secondorder kinetic model and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model achieved better fit with the experimental data. The percent adsorption and equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe) were increased with the increasing amount of adsorbent and initial concentration of dye, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic.
 G. Karaçetin, S. Sivrikaya, and M. Imamoğlu, “Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from hazelnut husk using zinc chloride,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 110, pp. 270–276, 2014.
 M. P. Tavlieva, S. D. Genieva, V. G. Georgieva, and L. T. Vlaev, “Kinetic study of brilliant green adsorption from aqueous solution onto white rice husk ash,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 409, pp. 112–122, 2013.
 M. T. Yagub, T. K. Sen, and H. M. Ang, “Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption by pine tree leaves,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. 223, no. 8, pp. 5267–5282, 2012.
 M. T. Yagub, T. K. Sen, S. Afroze, and H. M. Ang, “Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: A review,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 209, pp. 172–184, 2014.
 Y. Zhang, L. Bai, W. Zhou, R. Lu, H. Gao, and S. Zhang, “Superior adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 core-shell microspheres for removal of congo red from aqueous solution,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 219, pp. 88–94, 2016.
 V. S. Munagapati and D.-S. Kim, “Adsorption of anionic azo dye congo red from aqueous solution by cationic modified orange peel powder,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 220, pp. 540–548, 2016.
 M. A. Zenasni, B. Meroufel, A. Merlin, and B. George, “Adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution using CTAB-kaolin from bechar algeria,” Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, vol. 4, pp. 332–341, 2014.
 T. K. Saha, “Adsorption of methyl orange onto chitosan from aqueous solution,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 898–906, 2010.
 P. Sharma, R. Kaur, C. Baskar, and W. J. Chung, “Removal of methylene blue from aqueous waste using rice husk and rice husk ash,” Desalination, vol. 259, no. 1–3, pp. 249–257, 2010.
 R. Lafi and A. Hafiane, “Removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution using cationic surfactants modified coffee waste (MCWs),” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 58, pp. 424–433, 2016.
 M. A. Ahmad and N. K. Rahman, “Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic of Remazol Brilliant Orange 3R dye adsorption on coffee husk-based activated carbon,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 154–161, 2011.
 Y. Safa and H. N. Bhatti, “Kinetic and thermodynamic modeling for the removal of Direct Red-31 and Direct Orange-26 dyes from aqueous solutions by rice husk,” Desalination, vol. 272, no. 1–3, pp. 313-322, 2011.
 S. Ata, M. Imran Din, A. Rasool, I. Qasim, and I. Ul Mohsin, “Equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetic sorption studies for the removal of coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran as a lowcost adsorbent,” Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol. 2012, pp. 405980, 2012.
 H. Yu, T. Wang, L. Yu, W. Dai, N. Ma, X. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Remarkable adsorption capacity of Ni-doped magnolia-leaf-derived bioadsorbent for congo red,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 64, pp. 279–284, 2016.
 M.-H. Baek, C. O. Ijagbemi, S.-J. O, and D.-S. Kin, “Removal of Malachite Green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 176, no. 1–3, pp. 820–828, 2010.
 R. K. Gautam, A. Mudhoo, and M. C. Chattopadhyaya, “Kinetic, equilibrium, thermodynamic studies and spectroscopic analysis of Alizarin Red S removal by mustard husk,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1283–1291, 2013.
 S. Sadaf and H. N. Bhatti, “Batch and fixed bed column studies for the removal of Indosol Yellow BG dye by peanut husk,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 541–553, 2014.
 S. Sadaf and H. N. Bhatti, “Evaluation of peanut husk as a novel, low cost biosorbent for the removal of Indosol Orange RSN dye from aqueous solutions: Batch and fixed bed studies,” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 527–544, 2014.
 H. Chen, J. Zhao, J. Wu, and G. Dai, “Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 192, no. 1, pp. 246–254, 2011.
 Y. Su, B. Zhao, W. Xiao, and R. Han, “Adsorption behavior of light green anionic dye using cationic surfactant-modified wheat straw in batch and column mode,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 5558–5568, 2013.
 R. D. Zhang, J. H. Zhang, X. N. Zhang, C. C. Dou, and R. P. Han, “Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solutions using cationic surfactant modified wheat straw in batch mode: Kinetic and equilibrium study,” Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 2578–2583, 2014.
 C. Santasnachok, W. Kurniawan, and H. Hinode, “The use of synthesized zeolites from power plant rice husk ash obtained from Thailand as adsorbent for cadmium contamination removal from zinc mining,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2115–2126, 2015.
 P. Leiva, E. Ciannamea, R. A. Ruseckaite, and P. M. Stefani, “Medium-density particleboards from rice husks and soybean protein concentrate,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 1301–1306, 2007.
 L. Ludueña, D. Fasce, V. A. Alvarez, and P. M. Stefani, “Nanocellulose from rice husk following alkaline treatment to remove silica,” BioResources, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1440–1453, 2011.
 S. Chakraborty, S. Chowdhury, and P. Das Saha, “Adsorption of Crystal Violet from aqueous solution onto NaOH-modified rice husk,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1533–1541, 2011.
 S. Chowdhury, R. Mishra, P. Saha, and P. Kushwaha, “Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk,” Desalination, vol. 265, no. 1–3, pp. 159–168, 2011.
 K. Y. Foo and B. H. Hameed, “Coconut husk derived activated carbon via microwave induced activation: Effects of activation agents, preparation parameters and adsorption performance,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 184, pp. 57–65, 2012.
 S. Kaur, S. Rani, and R. K. Mahajan, “Adsorption kinetics for the removal of hazardous dye congo red by biowaste materials as adsorbents,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, pp. 12, 2013.
 S. D. Genieva, S. Ch. Turmanova, A. S. Dimitrova, and L. T. Vlaev, “Characterization of rice husks and the products of its thermal degradation in air or nitrogen atmosphere,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 387–396, 2008.
 S. G. Liu, Y. Q. Ding, P. F. Li, K. S. Diao, X. C. Tan, F. H. Lei, Y. H. Zhan, Q. M. Lib, B. Huang, and Z. Y. Huang, “Adsorption of the anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution onto natural zeolites modified with N,N-dimethyl dehydroabietylamine oxide,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 248, pp. 135–144, 2014.
 P. S. Kumar, S. Ramalingam, C. Senthamarai, M. Niranjanaa, P. Vijayalakshmi, and S. Sivanesan, “Adsorption of dye from aqueous solution by cashew nut shell: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of interactions,” Desalination, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 52–60, 2010.
 R. Katal, M. S. Baei, H. T. Rahmati, and H. Esfandian, “Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic study of nitrate adsorption from aqueous solution using modified rice husk,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 295–302, 2012.
 L. Lin, S.-R. Zhai, Z.-Y. Xiao, Y. Song, Q.-D. An, and X.-W. Song, “Dye adsorption of mesoporous activated carbons produced from NaOH-pretreated rice husks,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 136, pp. 437–443, 2013.
 Q.-Q. Zhong, Q.-Y. Yue, Q. Li, X. Xu, and B.-Y. Gao, “Preparation, characterization of modified wheat residue and its utilization for the anionic dye removal,” Desalination, vol. 267, no. 2–3, pp. 193–200, 2011.
 A. Dutta and R. K. Dutta, “Fluorescence behavior of cis-methyl orange stabilized in cationic premicelles,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 126, pp. 270–279, 2014.
 S. Langergren, “About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances,” Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, vol. 24, pp. 1–39, 1898.
 Y. S. Ho and G. McKay, “Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 451–465, 1999.
 J. Zeldowitsch, “Über den mechanismus der katalytischen oxydation von CO an MnO2,” Acta Physicochimica U.R.S.S., vol. 1, pp. 364–449, 1934.
 W. J. Weber and J. C. Morris, “Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution,” Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 31–60, 1963.
 T. Qiu, Y. Zeng, C. Ye, and H. Tian, “Adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of p-Xylene on activated carbon,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1551–1556, 2012.