Main Article Content
Development of polymeric packaging materials for electronic devices have attracted discussions in many published works amid challenges in high speed electronic performance. In order to achieve hybrid integration in most power system, sustainable packaging materials with high thermal conductivity are needed to achieve this purpose. In this paper, attempts were made to analyse the existing packaging materials and the modification of electronics system using 2-D and 3-D dimensional packaging approaches. Also introduced in this work is the integration of polymer multi-functional block in electronic packaging which is aimed at reducing the density of electronic devices. It is hoped that the recommendation from this work will stimulate novel research and generate new interest in applications of sustainable materials for the electronics packaging industry.
 Y. Rao, S. Ogitani, P. Kohl, and C. Wong, “Novel polymer–ceramic nanocomposite based on high dielectric constant epoxy formula for embedded capacitor application,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 83, pp. 1084–1090, 2002.
 J. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, “The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 7, pp. 145–147, 1997.
 I. Mir and D. Kumar, “Recent advances in isotropic conductive adhesives for electronics packaging applications,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 28, pp. 362–371, 2008.
 S. Rimdusit and H. Ishida, “Development of new class of electronic packaging materials based on ternary systems of benzoxazine, epoxy, and phenolic resins,” Polymer, vol. 41, pp. 7941–7949, 2000.
 H. Klauk, Organic Electronics: Materials, Manufacturing, and Applications. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2006.
 S. Amin, A. A. Siddiqui, A. Ayesha, T. Ansar, and A. Ehtesham, “Advanced materials for power electronics packaging and insulation,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 44, pp. 33–45, 2016.
 G. White, “High temperature electronics packaging in Europe,” High-Temperature Electronics in Europe, vol. 275, pp. 87–98, 2000.
 W. W. Lee and P. S. Ho, “Low-dielectric-constant materials for ULSI interlayer-dielectric applications,” MRS Bulletin, vol. 22, pp. 19–27, 1997.
 K. Kreuer, “On the development of proton conducting materials for technological applications,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 97, pp. 1–15,1997.
 S. Zhan, M. H. Azarian, and M. G. Pecht, “Surface insulation resistance of conformally coated printed circuit boards processed with no-clean flux,” IEEE transactions on electronics packaging manufacturing, vol. 29, pp. 217–223, 2006.
 C. Dominkovics and G. Harsanyi, “Effects of flux residues on surface insulation resistance and electrochemical migration,” in Proceedings 29th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, 2006, pp. 206–210.
 S. Yang and A. Christou, “Failure model for silver electrochemical migration,” IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 7, pp. 188–196, 2007.
 P.-E. Tegehall, “Impact of humidity and contamination on surface insulation resistance and electrochemical migration,” in The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2011, pp. 227–253.
 Q.-D. Ling, D.-J. Liaw, C. Zhu, D. S.-H. Chan, E.-T. Kang, and K.-G. Neoh, “Polymer electronic memories: Materials, devices and mechanisms,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 33, pp. 917–978, 2008.
 W. Zeng, L. Shu, Q. Li, S. Chen, F. Wang, and X. M. Tao, “Fiber-based wearable electronics: A review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications,” Advanced Materials, vol. 26, pp. 5310–5336, 2014.
 S. Merino, C. Martín, K. Kostarelos, M. Prato, and E. Vázquez, “Nanocomposite hydrogels: 3D polymer–nanoparticle synergies for on-demand drug delivery,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, pp. 4686–4697, 2015.
 M. H. Elsheikh, D. A. Shnawah, M. F. M. Sabri, S. B. M. Said, M. H. Hassan, M. B. A. Bashir, and M. Mohamad, “A review on thermoelectric renewable energy: Principle parameters that affect their performance,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 30, pp. 337–355, 2014.
 J. L. Hedrick, K. R. Carter, H. J. Cha, C. J. Hawker, R. A. DiPietroa, J. W. Labadie, R. D. Miller, T. P. Russell, M. I. Sanchez, W. Volksen, D. Y. Yoon, D. Mecerreyes, R. Jerome, and J. E. McGrathc, “High-temperature polyimide nanofoams for microelectronic applications,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 30, pp. 43–53, 1996.
 M. J. Yim and K. W. Paik, “Recent advances on anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs) for flat panel displays and semiconductor packaging applications,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 26, pp. 304–313, 2006.
 D. C. Thompson, O. Tantot, H. Jallageas, G. E. Ponchak, M. M. Tentzeris, and J. Papapolymerou, “Characterization of Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) material and transmission lines on LCP substrates from 30 to 110 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52, pp. 1343–1352, 2004.
 T. Tanaka, G. Montanari, and R. Mulhaupt, “Polymer nanocomposites as dielectrics and electrical insulation-perspectives for processing technologies, material characterization and future applications,” IEEE transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 11, pp. 763–784, 2004.
 M. Avella, J. J. De Vlieger, M. E. Errico, S. Fischer, P. Vacca, and M. G. Volpe, “Biodegradable starch/ clay nanocomposite films for food packaging applications,” Food Chemistry, vol. 93, pp. 467–474, 2005.
 E. Fortunati, I. Armentano, Q. Zhou, A. Iannoni, E. Saino, L. Visai, L. A. Berglund, and J. M. Kenny, “Multifunctional bionanocomposite films of poly(lactic acid), cellulose nanocrystals and silver nanoparticles,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 1596–1605, 2012.
 Z. Han and A. Fina, “Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites: A review,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, pp. 914–944, 2011.
 R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. De Heer, “Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications,” Science, vol. 297, pp. 787–792, 2002.
 Z.-M. Huang, Y.-Z. Zhang, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 63, pp. 2223–2253, 2003.
 W. E. Jones, J. Chiguma, E. Johnson, A. Pachamuthu, and D. Santos, “Electrically and thermally conducting nanocomposites for electronic applications,” Materials, vol. 3, pp. 1478–1496, 2010.
 J. Lagaron, L. Cabedo, D. Cava, J. Feijoo, R. Gavara, and E. Gimenez, “Improving packaged food quality and safety. Part 2: Nanocomposites,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 22, pp. 994–998, 2005.
 A. Lopez-Rubio, E. Almenar, P. Hernandez- Muñoz, J. M. Lagarón, R. Catalá, and R. Gavara, “Overview of active polymer-based packaging technologies for food applications,” Food Reviews International, vol. 20, pp. 357–387, 2004.
 A. Sorrentino, G. Gorrasi, and V. Vittoria, “Potential perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 18, pp. 84–95, 2007.
 J. Du, J. Bai, and H. Cheng, “The present status and key problems of carbon nanotube based polymer composites,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 1, pp. 253–273, 2007.
 P.-C. Ma, N. A. Siddiqui, G. Marom, and J.-K. Kim, “Dispersion and functionalization of carbon nanotubes for polymer-based nanocomposites: a review,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 41, pp. 1345–1367, 2010.
 I. T. Kim, G. A. Nunnery, K. Jacob, J. Schwartz, X. Liu, and R. Tannenbaum, “Synthesis, characterization, and alignment of magnetic carbon nanotubes tethered with maghemite nanoparticles,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, pp. 6944–6951, 2010.
 C. Mu, L. Zhang, Y. Song, X. Chen, M. Liu, F. Wang, and X. Hu, “Modification of carbon nanotubes by a novel biomimetic approach towards the enhancement of the mechanical properties of polyurethane,” Polymer, vol. 92, pp. 231–238, 2016.
 X. Gong, J. Liu, S. Baskaran, R. D. Voise, and J. S. Young, “Surfactant-assisted processing of carbon nanotube/polymer composites,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 12, pp. 1049–1052, 2000.
 H. He, R. Fu, Y. Shen, Y. Han, and X. Song, “Preparation and properties of Si3N4/PS composites used for electronic packaging,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 67, pp. 2493–2499, 2007.
 Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and D. Zhu, “Advances in organic field-effect transistors,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 53–65, 2005.
 X. C. Tong, “Thermal interface materials in electronic packaging,” in Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic Packaging. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2011, pp. 305–371.
 M.-H. Tsai and W.-T. Whang, “Low dielectric polyimide/poly(silsesquioxane)-like nanocomposite material,” Polymer, vol. 42, pp. 4197–4207, 2001.
 J. L. Hedrick, K. R. Carter, H. J. Cha, C. J. Hawker, R. A. DiPietro, J. W. Labadie, R. D. Miller, T. P. Russell, M. I. Sanchez, W. Volksen, D. Y. Yoon, D. Mecerreyes, R.Jerome, and J. E. McGrath, “High-temperature polyimide nanofoams for microelectronic applications,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 30, pp. 43–53, 1996.
 Y. Cao, P. C. Irwin, and K. Younsi, “The future of nanodielectrics in the electrical power industry,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 11, pp. 797–807, 2004.
 W. H. Ko, “Packaging of microfabricated devices and systems,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 42, pp. 169–175, 1995.
 J. M. Lagaron and A. Lopez-Rubio, “Nanotechnology for bioplastics: Opportunities, challenges and strategies,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 22, pp. 611–617, 2011.
 K. Verghese and H. Lewis, “Environmental innovation in industrial packaging: A supply chain approach,” International Journal of Production Research, vol. 45, pp. 4381–4401, 2007.
 M. Turolla, “Critical interconnects specifications for LP/LV integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging trends,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 39, pp. 77–107, 1997.
 C. Ó. Mathúna, N. Wang, S. Kulkarni, and S. Roy, “Review of integrated magnetics for power supply on chip (PwrSoC),” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, pp. 4799–4816, 2012.
 B. Ziaie, J. A. Von Arx, M. R. Dokmeci, and K. Najafi, “A hermetic glass-silicon micropackage with high-density on-chip feedthroughs for sensors and actuators,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 5, pp. 166–179, 1996.
 A. Gerlach, W. Keller, J. Schulz, and K. Schumacher, “Gas permeability of adhesives and their application for hermetic packaging of microcomponents,” Microsystem Technologies, vol. 7, pp. 17–22, 2001.
 H.-S. Sun, Y.-C. Chiu, and W.-C. Chen, “Renewable polymeric materials for electronic applications,” Polymer Journal, vol. 49, pp. 61–73, 2016.
 I. Szendiuch, “Development in electronic packaging–moving to 3D system configuration,” Radioengineering, vol. 20, pp. 214–220, 2011.
 V. Srikar and S. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 102, pp. 279–285, 2003.
 N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100, pp. 051606, 2006.
 D. Liu, Y. Chao, and C. Wang, “Study of wire bonding looping formation in the electronic packaging process using the three-dimensional finite element method,” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, vol. 40, pp. 263–286, 2004.
 J. N. Calata, J. G. Bai, X. Liu, S. Wen, and G.-Q. Lu, “Three-dimensional packaging for power semiconductor devices and modules,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, vol. 28, pp. 404–412, 2005.
 A. K. Mandal, J. Mahmood, and J. B. Baek, “Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks for optoelectronics and energy storage,” ChemNanoMat, vol. 3, pp. 373–391, 2017.
 B. S. Feero and P. P. Pande, “Networks-on-chip in a three-dimensional environment: A performance evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 58, pp. 32–45, 2009.
 C. Zhu, Z. Gu, L. Shang, R. P. Dick, and R. Joseph, “Three-dimensional chip-multiprocessor runtime thermal management,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 27, pp. 1479–1492, 2008.