Centella asiatica Extract Loaded BSA Nanoparticles Using the Organic and Conventional C. asiatica to Improve Bioavailability Activity and Drug Delivery System

  • Ming-Shan Huang Food Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Biotechnology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Patteera Chanapongpisa Food Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Biotechnology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Patchanee Yasurin Food Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Biotechnology, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Kanyarat Kitsubthawee Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Jirapa Phetsom Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand
  • Ir. Lindayani Food Technology Program, Soegijapranata Catholic University (SCU), Semarang-Indonesia
Keywords: Centella asiatica, BSA-nanoparticles, Bioavailability, Organic, in vitro released kinetic

Abstract

Centella asiatica (CA) extracts have been described for their high phytochemical contents, especially phenolic compounds. Active extracts also showed effectively potential in vitro but not in vivo experiments due to their poor lipid solubility or inappropraietd molecular weight, which resulted in poor bioavailability. This study, the nanoencapsulation process is applied to enhance bioavailability, stability and bioactivity of CA extracts. BSA (Bovine serum albumin) nanoparticles containing phenolic extracts of CA were synthesized by an adapted desolvation method at the ratio between CA extract: BSA at 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The entrapment efficiency, loading efficiency, solubility and stability are used to test the efficiency of the nanoparticles. The in vitro released kinetic is monitored for 6-hour period in both artificial gastric buffer at pH 2.0 and intestinal juice buffer at pH 7.4. The result showed that the different ratio of the CA concentrations to BSA nanoparticles had no significant effect to its bioavailability (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the types of extraction solvents including ethanol, chloroform and hexane significantly affected the level of bioavailability (p < 0.05). Especially, the ethanol extracts loaded in BSA at ratio of 1:2 showed the best result, and it was the most economical way due to less consumption of BSA nanoparticle was used. The study of CA extracts loaded in BSA nanoparticles here demonstated the improvement of bioavailability and drug delivery system.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1] P. Yasurin, M. Sriariyanun, and T. Phusantisampan, “Review: The bioavailability activity of Centella asiatica,” KMUTNB Int J Appl Sci Technol, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2016.

[2] P. Hashim, H. Sidek, M. Helan, A. Sabery, U. D. Palanisamy, and M. Ilham, “Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica,” Molecules, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1310–1322, 2011.

[3] Y. H. Huang, S. H. Zhang, R. X. Zhen, X. D. Xu, and Y. S. Zhen, “Asiaticoside inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and enhancing anti-tumor activity of vincristine,” Chinese Journal of Cancer, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1599–1604, 2004.

[4] M. C. Kwon, W. Y. Choi, Y. C. Seo, J. S. Kim, C. S. Yoon, H. W. Lim, H. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, and H. Y. Lee, “Enhancement of the skin-protective activities of Centella asiatica L. Urban by a nanoencapsulation process,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 100–106, 2012.

[5] F. Ariffin, S. Heong Chew, K. Bhupinder, A. A. Karim, and N. Huda, “Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of fermented Centella asiatica herbal teas,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 91, no. 15, pp. 2731–2739, 2011.

[6] R. Benz and K. Bauer, “Permeation of hydrophilic molecules through the outer membrane of gramnegativ bacteria: Review of becterial porins,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 1988.

[7] K. J. Gohil, J. A. Patel, and A. K. Gajjar, “Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: A potential herbal cure-all,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 546–556, 2010.

[8] X. Xie, Q. Tao, Y. Zou, F. Zhang, M. Guo, Y. Wang, H. Wang, Q. Zhou, and S. Yu, “PLGA nanoparticles improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin in rats: Characterizations and mechanisms,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 17, pp. 9280–9289, 2011.

[9] K. Yongsirasawad, P. Yasurin, P. Sanvarinda, and N. Sornritchinchai, “Simulated gastrointestinal system study of Centella asiatica extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities,” KMUTNB Int J Appl Sci Technol, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 231–238, 2017.

[10] S. Chaichoowonga, J. B. Bolb, P. Bolc, T. Gamseb, and M. Sriariyanuna, “Chemical profiling of acalypha indica obtained from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and soxhlet extraction methods,” Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 66–73, 2017.

[11] F. Kratz, “Albumin as a drug carrier: Design of prodrugs, drug conjugates and nanoparticles,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 132, no.3, pp. 171–183, 2008.

[12] Z. Yu, M. Yu, Z. Zhang, G. Hong, and Q. Xiong, “Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles as controlled release carrier for local drug delivery to the inner ear,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 343(1)–343(7), 2014.

[13] B. V. Bonifacio, P. B. da Silva, M. A. dos Santos Ramos, K. M. S. Negri, T. M. Bauab, and M. Chorilli, “Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: A review,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp. 1–15, 2014.

[14] A. E. Grill, N. W. Johnston, T. Sadhukha, and J. Panyam, “A review of select recent patents on novel nanocarriers,” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 2009.

[15] B. Mamtha, K. Kavitha, and K. K. Srinivasan, “An in vitro study of the effect of Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) on enteric pathogens,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 41– 44, 2004.

[16] R. M. Mainardes, M. C. C. Urban, P. O. Cinto, M. V. Chaud, R. C. Evangelista, and M. P. D. Gremiao, “Liposomes and micro/nanoparticles as colloidal carriers for nasal drug delivery,” Current Drug Delivery, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 275–285, 2006.

[17] J. Venugopal, M. P. Prabhakaran, S. Low, A. T. Choon, G. Deepika, V. R. Dev, and S. Ramakrishna, “Continuous nanostructures for the controlled release of drugs,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15, no. 15, pp. 1799–1808, 2009.

[18] B. V. Bonifacio, P. B. Silva, M. A. Ramos, K. M. Negri, T. M. Bauab, and M. Chorilli, “Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: A review,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, pp.1–15, 2014.

[19] B. Azimi, P. Nourpanah, M. Rabiee, and S. Arbab, “Producing gelatin nanoparticles as delivery system for bovine serum albumin,” Iranian Biomedical Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2014.

[20] A. J. Das, “Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort),” Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 216– 228, 2011.

[21] N. Pitinidhipat and P. Yasurin, “Antibacterial activity of Chrysanthemum indicum, Centella asiatica and Andrographis paniculata against Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes under osmotic stress,” AU Journal of Technology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 239–245, 2012.

[22] C. Weber, C. Coester, J. Kreuter, and K. Langer, “Desolvation process and surface characterisation of protein nanoparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 91–102, 2000.

[23] P. Khadka, J. Ro, H. Kim, I. Kim, J. T. Kim, H. Kim, J. M. Cho, G. Yun, and J. Lee, “Pharmaceutical particle technologies: An approach to improve drug solubility, dissolution and bioavailability,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 304–316, 2014.

[24] B. H. I. Ruszymah, S. R. Chowdhury, N. A. B. A. Manan, O. S. Fong, M. I. Adenan, and A. B. Saim, “Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica promotes corneal epithelium wound healing in vitro,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 333–338, 2012.

[25] T. Estey, J. Kang, S. P. Schwendeman, and J. F. Carpenter, “BSA degradation under acidic conditions: A model for protein instability during release from PLGA delivery systems,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 95, no. 7, pp.1626–1639, 2006.

[26] O. Suwantong, U. Ruktanonchai, and P. Supaphol, “In vitro biological evaluation of electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats containing asiaticoside or curcumin,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1216–1225, 2010.

[27] H. A. Azis, M. Taher, A. S. Ahmed, W. M. A. W. Sulaiman, D. Susanti, S. R. Chowdhury, and Z. A. Zakaria, “In vitro and in vivo wound healing studies of methanolic fraction of Centella asiatica extract,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 108, pp. 163–174, 2017.

[28] S. Wongsasulak, M. Patapeejumruswong, J. Weiss, P. Supaphol, and T. Yoovidhya, “Electrospinning of food-grade nanofibers from cellulose acetate and egg albumen blends,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 98, no. 3, Jun. 2010, pp. 370–376.
Published
2020-02-19
Section
Research Articles