Main Article Content
In the new era with advanced technologies, fuel cell has been widely used as source of power both for portable and stationary applications. The application has become more popular nowadays as it is an eco-friendly device and has no noise due to absence of rotating components. Fuel cells are designed with high efficiency compared to conventional energy sources. However, the benefits have come with weaknesses and threats that might deter its prevalent application. This paper is, therefore, aimed at comparing the seven mainly used fuel cells. The SWOT analysis of the fuel cells are also presented separately, and the pros and cons of each cell were summarized.
 Y. N. Magar, “Convective cooling and thermal management optimization of planar anodesupported solid oxide fuel cells,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2006.
 N. K. Shrivastava and T. A. Harris, Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017.
 M. Sajgure, B. Kachare, P. Gawhale, S. Waghmare, and G. Jagadale, “Direct methanol fuel cell: A review,” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Special Issue 6 (Oct 2016), pp. 8–11, 2016.
 Y. Na, F. Zenith, and U. Krewer, “Increasing fuel efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell systems with feedforward control of the operating concentration,” Energies, vol. 8, pp. 10409–10429, 2015.
 Y. Wang, K. S. Chen, J. Mishler, S. C. Cho, and X. C. Adroher, “A review of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Technology, applications, and needs on fundamental research,” Applied Energy, vol. 88, pp. 981–1007, 2011.
 J. Piao, S. Liao, and Z. Liang, “A novel cesium hydrogen sulfate–zeolite inorganic composite electrolyte membrane for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell application,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 193, pp. 483–487, 2009.
 E. Jannelli, M. Minutillo, and E. Galloni, “Performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system fueled with hydrogen generated by a fuel processor,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 435–440, 2007.
 L. Mearian, “Navy tests first ‘reversible’ clean energy fuel cell storage system,” 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.itnews.com/ article/3032302/navy-tests-first-reversible-cleanenergy- fuel-cell-storage-system.html
 J. R. Vang, S. J. Andreasen, and S. K. Kær, “A transient fuel cell model to simulate HTPEM fuel cell impedance spectra,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 9, p. 021005, 2012.
 P. Breeze, Fuel Cell. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017.
 C. Polat, “Market opportunities for hydrogen solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC): A review of the literature and the future market trends,” presented at the Conference: Business & Economics Conferences (EABR) and Teaching & Education Conferences, Salzburg, Austria, Jun. 23–26, 2008.
 Y. C. Ledon, “Introduction of advanced technology (solid oxide fuel cell) in the sugar cane industry: Technical and sustainability analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium 2012.
 N. Laosiripojana, W. Wiyaratn, W. Kiatkittipong, A. Arpornwichanop, A. Soottitantawat, and S. Assabumrungrat, “Reviews on solid oxide fuel cell technology,” Engineering Journal, vol. 13, pp. 65–84, 2009.
 J. Han and H. Liu, “Real time measurements of methanol crossover in a DMFC,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 164, pp. 166–173, 2007.
 H. Yang and T. Zhao, “Effect of anode flow field design on the performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 50, pp. 3243–3252, 2005.
 H.-C. Cha, C.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Shiu, “Investigation on the durability of direct methanol fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 192, pp. 451–456, 2009.
 Y. Chang, Y. Qin, Y. Yin, J. Zhang, and X. Li, “Humidification strategy for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells–A review,” Applied Energy, vol. 230, pp. 643–662, 2018.
 C. Hartnig, C. Hartnig, L. Jörissen, and J. A. Kerres, Materials for Fuel Cells. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008.
 A. M. Abdalla, S. Hossain, O. B. Nisfindy, A. T. Azad, M. Dawood, and A. K. Azad, “Hydrogen production, storage, transportation and key challenges with applications: A review,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 165, pp. 602– 627, 2018.
 G. McLean, T. Niet, S. Prince-Richard, and N. Djilali, “An assessment of alkaline fuel cell technology,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 27, pp. 507–526, 2002.
 Acidpedia, “Phosphoric acid: A highly hyped chemical,” 2018. [Online]. Available: http:// acidpedia.org/phosphoric-acid-highly-hypedchemical/
 Brightkite, “Essay on advantages and disadvantages of a molton carbonate fuel cell,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.123helpme.com/advantagesand- disadvantages-of-a-molton-carbonate-fuelcell- preview.asp?id=305431
 A. B. Stambouli and E. Traversa, “Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs): A review of an environmentally clean and efficient source of energy,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rreviews, vol. 6, pp. 433– 455, 2002.
 S. K. Kamarudin, F. Achmad, and W. R. W. Daud, “Overview on the application of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) for portable electronic devices,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, pp. 6902–6916, 2009.
 A. Hacquard, “Improving and understanding direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance,” M.S. thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts, USA, 2005.
 H. Æ. Sigurjonsson and L. R. Clausen, “Solution for the future smart energy system: A polygeneration plant based on reversible solid oxide cells and biomass gasification producing either electrofuel or power,” Applied Energy, vol. 216, pp. 323– 337, 2018.
 N. F. Harun, D. Tucker, and T. A. Adams, “Fuel composition transients in fuel cell turbine hybrid for polygeneration applications,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 11, p. 061001, 2014.
 P. Breeze, “The alkaline fuel cell,” in Fuel Cells. Massachusetts: Academic Press, 2017, pp. 23–32.
 P. Breeze, “The Phosphoric acid fuel cell,” in Fuel Cell. Massachusetts: Academic Press, 2017, pp. 45–51.
 Y. Yoshioka, “Cell technologies for high pressure type PAFC,” presented at the Fuel Cell Seminar, Washington DC, May 19–22, 1985.
 S. Jessie Lue, W.-L. Hsu, C.-Y. Chao, and K. Mahesh, “Effects of operating conditions on direct methanol fuel cell performance using nafion-based polymer electrolytes,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, p. 061004, 2014.  A. Iranzo, A. Salva, E. Tapia, and F. Rosa, “Effect of the membrane thermal conductivity on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell,” Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, vol. 11, p. 031007, 2014.
 B. Tavakoli and R. Roshandel, “The effect of fuel cell operational conditions on the water content distribution in the polymer electrolyte membrane,” Renewable Energy, vol. 36, pp. 3319–3331, 2011.
 Reportlinker, “Phosphoric acid market-global industry analysis, size, share, growth, trends, and forecast 2018–2026,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ phosphoric-acid-market---global-industryanalysis- size-share-growth-trends-and-forecast- 2018---2026-300669420.html