Main Article Content
Mango seed kernel (MSK) is a waste material of the mango processing industry and is reported to significantly contain phenolic compounds with anti-oxidative properties. In this work, these compounds are isolated via solid-liquid extraction (SLE) in which solvent mixture design approach was used to evaluate the optimal quaternary solvent ratio in relation to the phenolics content of extracts from MSK. The quaternary solvent is composed of ethanol (E), methanol (M), acetone (A), and water (W). The extraction process was implemented at 40°C for 60 minutes with the ratio between solid and solvent at 1:25. Response surface methodology coupled with simplex lattice design was developed to evaluate the optimal solvent system and their interaction effects on the phenolic compounds content. The linear, two-way, and three-way interaction, except for methanol-acetonewater system, resulted in positive effects on the phenolic compounds content. The response model shows that a quaternary mixture with approximately 3:3:3:1 E:M:A:W ratio provided the highest phenolic content. A Scheffé cubic model sufficiently described the extraction process. The results of this study showed that the extraction of phenolic compounds in MSK via SLE using a mixture of solvents is possible. Higher extraction efficiencies can be achieved by optimizing the SLE process, and the optimum conditions can be applied to produce phenolic extracts with positive antioxidant activity.
 E. Gallo, “Recent evolution of the world mango market,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 1075, pp. 41–50, 2005.
 E. A. Evans, “Recent trends in world and U.S. mango production, trade, and consumption I,” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://edis.ifas.ufl. edu/FE70800.
 N. Hlaing, E. B. Taboada, J. D. B.-Keyner, and D. J. Lacks, “Humanitarian chemical engineering,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 111, pp. 45– 50, 2015.
 S. Wijetunga and C. D. Gunasekar, “Evaluation of refused tea waste activated carbon for color removal: Equilibrium and kinetic studies,” Advances in Environmental Research, vol. 6, pp. 1–14, 2017.
 O. O. Joyce, B. M. Latayo, and A. C. Onyinye, “Chemical composition and phytochemical properties of mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel,” International Journal of Advanced Chemistry, vol. 2, pp. 185–187, 2014.
 C. T.-Leon, R. Rojas, J. C. C.-Esquivel, L. S.-Cock, R. E. B.-Cerda, and C. N. Aguilar, “Mango seed: Functional and nutritional properties,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 55, pp. 109–117, 2016.
 A. Scalbert, I. T. Johnson, and M. Saltmarsh, “Polyphenols: Antioxidants and beyond,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, pp. 215S–217S, 2005.
 Transparency Market Research, “Global polyphenols market reports steady rise as rising geriatric population spurs demand, says TMR,” 2019. [Online]. Available : http://www.transparencymarketresearch. com/pressrelease/polyphenolmarket. htm.
 K. Bouallegue, T. Allaf, C. Besombes, R. B. Younes, and K. Allaf, “Phenomenological modelling and intensification of texturing/grinding-assisted solvent oil extraction: case of date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera L.),” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 2398–2410, 2015.
 E. M. Silva, H. Rogez, and Y. Larondelle, “Optimization of extraction of phenolics from Inga edulis leaves using response surface methodology,” Separationa and Purification Technology, vol. 55, pp. 381–387, 2007.
 C. Mané, J. M. Souquet, D. Ollé, C. Verriés, F. Véran, G. Mazerolles, V. Cheynier, and H. Fulcrand. “Optimization of simultaneous flavanol, phenolic acid, and anthocyanin extraction from grapes using an experimental design: application to the characterization of champagnes grape varieties,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, pp. 7224–7233, 2007.
 E. Karvela, D. P. Makris, N. Kalogeropoulos, V. T. Karathanos, and P. Kefalas, “Factorial design optimization of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed polyphenol extraction,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 229, pp. 731–742, 2009.
 M. Bonoli, V. Verardo, E. Marconi, and M. F. Caboni, “Antioxidant phenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) flour: Comparative spectrophotometric study among extraction methods of free and bound phenolic compounds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, pp. 5195–5200, 2004.
 A. A. Lonni, R. Longhini, G. C. Lopes, J. C. de Mello, and I. S. Scarminio, “Statistical mixture design selective extraction of compounds with antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content from Trichilia catigua,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 719, pp. 57–60, 2012.
 E. Dorta, M. G. Lobo, and M. González, “Using drying treatments to stabilize mango peel and seed: Effect on antioxidant activity,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 45, pp. 261–268, 2012.
 N. R. Draper and F. Pukelsheim, “Mixture models based on homogeneous polynomials,” Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, vol. 71, pp. 303– 311, 1998.
 F. G. K. Vieira, G. D. S. C. Borges, C. Copetti, P. F. di Pietro, E. D. C. Nunes, and R. Fett, “Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the apple flesh and peel of eleven cultivars grown in Brazil,” Scientia Horticulturae-Amsterdam, vol. 128, pp. 261–266, 2011.
 W. Horwitz, Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed., Maryland: AOAC International, 2000.
 A. Sluitzer, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton, “Determination of extractives in biomass,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, USA, NREL/TP-510-42619, 2005.
 A. Khoddami, M. A. Wilkes, and T. H. Roberts, “Techniques for analysis of plant phenolic compounds,” Molecules, vol. 18, pp. 2328–2375, 2013.
 D. Trafimow and B. D. Earp, “Null hypothesis significance testing and type I error: The domain problem,” New Ideas in Psychology, vol. 45, pp. 19–27, 2017.
 B. Mills, M. J. Moreira, and L. P. Vilela, “Tests based on t-statistics for IV regression with weak instruments,” Journal of Econometrics, vol. 182, pp. 351–363, 2014.
 A. Zuorro and R. Lavecchia, “Influence of extraction conditions on the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from spent coffee grounds,” American Journal of Applied Science, vol. 10, p. 478, 2013.
 S. Jafari and F. Bandarchian, “Optimization of Ni2+ adsorption on 13X zeolite using boxbehnken design,” Advances in Environmental Research, vol. 6, pp. 217–227, 2017.
 A. Khataee, L. Alidokht, A. Hassani, and S. Karaca, “Response surface analysis of removal of a textile dye by a Turkish coal powder,” Advances in Environmental Research, vol. 2, pp. 291–308, 2013.
 S. A. Zaman, D. Roy, and S. Ghosh, “Process modeling and optimization for biomass steamgasification employing response surface methodology,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 143, p. 105847, 2020.
 K. J. A. Lim, A. A. Cabajar, C. F. Y. Lobarbio, E. B. Taboada, and D. J. Lacks, “Extraction of bioactive compounds from mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Carabao) seed kernel with ethanolwater binary solvent systems,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 56, pp. 2536–2544, 2019.
 M. Masibo and Q. He, “Major mango polyphenols and their potential significance to human health,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 7, pp. 309–319, 2008.
 M. S. M. Nor, Z. A. Manan, A. A. Mustaffa, and C. L. Suan, “Prediction of the solubility of caffeic acid in water using an activity coefficient model,” presented at the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Science and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Apr. 20, 2015.
 A. Daneshfar, H. S. Ghaziaskar, and N. Homayoun, “Solubility of gallic acid in methanol, ethanol, water and ethyl acetate,” Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 53, pp. 776–778, 2008.
 C. M. Galanakis, V. Goulas, and V. Gekas, “Predicting the solubilization preference of natural phenols to different solvents,” presented at the 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Athens, Greece, May 22–26, 2011.
 R. Gonzalez-Montelongo, M. G. Lobo, and M. Gonzalez, “The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 71, pp. 347–355, 2010.
 B. Sultana, F. Anwar, and M. Ashraf, “Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts,” Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 2167–2180, 2009.
 L. R. Synder, “Classification of the solvent properties of common liquids,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 92, pp. 223–230, 1974.
 M. F. B. Abdul Razak, P. K. Yong, Z. M. Shah, L. C. Abdullah, S. S. Yee, and T. C. S. Yaw, “The effects of varying solvent polarity on extraction yield of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 1207–1210, 2012.
 R. Watson, Polyphenols in Plants: Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier BV, 2014.
 J. S. Boeing, E. O. Barizao, B. C. de Silva, P. F. Montanher, V. C. Almeida, and J. V. Visentainer, “Evaluation of solvent effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities from the berries: Application of principal component analysis,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 8, p. 48, 2014.
 Q. D. Do, A. E. Angkawijaya, P. L. Tran-Nguyen, L. H. Huynh, F. E. Soetaredjo, S. Ismadji, and Y. Ju, “Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 22, pp. 296–302, 2013.
 G. O. F. Barros, S. L. Woodard, and Z. L. Nikolov, “Phenolics removal from transgenic Lemma minor extracts expressing mAb and impact on mAb production cost,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 27, pp. 410–418, 2011.