Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants Prevent the Degradation of Vitamin D3 Fortification in Canola Oil during Baking and in Vitro Digestion

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Sebastian Goebel
Sylvie Avallone
Pakkawat Detchewa
Patcharee Prasajak
Wichien Sriwichai


Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in the northern and partly equatorial hemisphere countries. Fortification of vitamin D in commonly consumed vegetable oils can prevent rickets in children, osteoporosis and bone fractures in adults. Avoiding the loss of vitamin D3 fortification in oils during cooking is beneficial for consumer’s health. The aim of this work was to investigate the stability of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) fortification in canola oil during baking at 80 to 230°C for 10 to 40 min. The natural antioxidants (β-carotene and α-tocopherol) and the synthetic ones (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)) were used to prevent the degradation of vitamin D3. The kinetic degradation of vitamin D3, oxidative status of canola oil and the bioaccessibility in in vitro digestion were assessed. Vitamin D3 was relatively stable at 80 and 130°C for 10 to 40 min. High temperatures of 180 and 230°C caused the highest loss of vitamin D3 being up to 90%. Reaction rate of vitamin D3 degradation ranged from 2.01 to 6.80 × 10–2 sec–1. BHT and TBHQ had the highest antioxidant activity (> 50 %) to decrease the degradation of vitamin D3 at 230°C. The oxidative status (peroxide value, malondialdehyde content) of canola oil was improved after incorporating antioxidant agents. The vitamin D3 bioaccessibility was increased 1.5 fold after in vitro digestion. The consumption of 5 g brownie containing vitamin D3 100 μg/L and antioxidant agents 180 mg/L in 1 mL of canola oil would cover the daily intake.

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Goebel, S., Avallone, S., Detchewa, P., Prasajak, P., & Sriwichai, W. (2021). Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants Prevent the Degradation of Vitamin D3 Fortification in Canola Oil during Baking and in Vitro Digestion. Applied Science and Engineering Progress, 14(2), 247–258.
Research Articles


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