Microencapsulation of Thunbergia laurifolia Crude Extract and Its Antioxidant Properties
Keywords:Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl, Antioxidant activity, β-Cylcodextrin, Maltodextrin, Encapsulation
In this study, the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. or Rang Chuet (RC) extracts from leaf, stem and rhizome were evaluated by using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the folin ciocalteu method for total phenolic compounds (TPC). The extracts were prepared by infusion using different amount of plant powder (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g) at different concentrations of ethanol as 0, 25, 50, and 75% and extraction time of 24, 48, and 72 h. The crude extract of 7.5 g leaf powder extracted for 72 h using water as the extraction solvent showed the highest antioxidant properties and total phenolic content. This extraction condition produced a FRAP content of 2.62 ± 0.01 mmol Fe2+/g that was significantly differed from those of the stem and rhizome and the highest TPC content of 877.36±18.75 (mg GAE/g). The crude extract from the leaf was subsequently encapsulated by using β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and maltodextrin 20DE (MD) as coating materials using freeze-drying method. The encapsulated powder was investigated for its antioxidant activity. The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was obtained when only maltodextrin 20DE was used. The storage stability of encapsulated T. luarifolia leaf crude extract was then studied by storing the encapsulated powder at 35, 45, and 55°C for 5 weeks. The storage temperature had no effect on the stability of the encapsulated powder when TPC was used as the criteria unlike that of FRAP which was inconsistent during storage.
 E. W. C. Chan, S. Y. Eng, Y. P. Tan, Z. C. Wong, P. Y. Lye, and L. N. Tan, “Antioxidant and sensory properties of Thai herbal teas with emphasis on Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl,” Chiang Mai Journal of Science, vol. 39, no. 4 pp. 599–609, 2012.
 E. W. C. Chan, S. Y. Eng, Y. P. Tan, and Z. C. Wong, “Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Thunbergia laurifolia: A review,” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 3, no.24, pp.1–6, 2011.
 Z. Fang and B. Bhandari, “Encapsulation of polyphenols–A review,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 21, pp. 510–523, 2010.
 A. M. Ceballos, G. I. Giraldoand, and C. E. Orrego, “Effect of freezing rate on quality parameters of freeze-dried soursop fruit pulp,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 111, pp. 360–365, 2012.
 J. A. Bakan, “Microencapsulation,” in Encyclopedia of Food Science. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Co., 1978, pp. 499–507.
 K. G. H. Desai and P. H. Jin, “Recent developments in microencapsulation of food ingredients,” Drying Technology, vol. 23, pp.1361–1394, 2005.
 R. Klinjapo and W. Krasaekoopt, “Application of microencapsulated bamboo leaf extract powder to control the rancidity in Moo Yor (Vietnamesestyle sausage) during refrigerated storage,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, to be published. doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2020.02.004.
 L. F. Ballesteros, M. J. Ramirez, C. E. Orrego, J. A. Teixeira, and S. I. Mussatto, “Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spraydrying using different coating materials,” Journal of Food Chemistry, vol. 237, pp. 623-631, 2017.
 T. D. Shrestha, V. Kunathigan, K. Kitsawad, and S. Panprivech, “Impact of fermentation conditions on the extraction of phenolics and sensory characteristics of mangosteen wine,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, to be published. doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2020.05.001.
 C. C. Wong, H. Li, K. Cheng, and F. Chen, “A systemic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay,” Food Chemistry, vol. 97, pp. 705–711, 2006.
 M. P. Kähkönen, A. I. Hopia, H. J. Vuorela, J. P. Rauha, K. Pihlaja, T. S. Kujala, and M. Heinonen, “Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 3954– 3962, 1999.
 R. Oonsivilai, M. G. Ferruzi, and S. Ningsanond, “Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Rang Chuet (Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.) extracts,” Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–32, 2008.
 B. O. Mbaebie, H. O. Edeoga, and A. J. Afolayan, “Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 118–124, 2012.
 S. Shanmugam, R. V. Usha, and B.V. Pradeep, “Antioxidant activity of Rhizome extracts of Coleus forskohlii Briq,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 275– 279, 2018.
 B. Halliwell, “How to categorize a biological antioxidant,” Free Radical Research Communications, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–32, 1990.
 J. Chaudière and R. F. Iliou, “Intracellular antioxidants: From chemical to biochemical mechanisms,” Food Chem Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 9–10, pp. 949–962, 1999.
 I. F. F. Benzie, “Evolution of dietary antioxidants,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, vol. 136, no. 1, pp.113–126, 2003.
 D. Huang, B. Ou, and R. L. Prior, “The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, pp. 1841–1856, 2005.
 C. H. Beckman, “Phenolic-storing cells: Keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants,” Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 57, pp. 101–110, 2000.
 S. I. Mussatto, “Generating biomedical polyphenolic compounds from spent coffee or silverskin,” in Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2015, pp. 93–106.
 A.-S. Cho, S.-M. Jeon, M.-J. Kim, J. Yeo, K.-I. Seo, M.-S. Choi, and M.-K. Lee, “Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, pp. 937–943, 2010.
 H. S. Shin, H. Satsu, M.-J. Bae, Z. Zhao, H. Ogiwara, M. Totsuka, and M. Shimizu, “Antiinflammatory effect of chlorogenic acid on the IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells and the dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis symptoms in C57BL/6 mice,” Food Chemistry, vol. 168, pp. 167–175, 2015.
 K. Karthikesan, L. Pari, and V. P. Menon, “Antihyperlipidemic effect of chlorogenic acid and tetrahydrocurcumin in rats subjected 1to diabetogenic agents,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 188, pp. 643–650, 2010.
 H. Kasai, S. Fukada, Z. Yamaizumi, S. Sugie, and H. Mori, “Action of chlorogenic acid in vegetables and fruits as an inhibitor of 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation in vitro and in a rat carcinogenesis model,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, pp. 467–471, 2000.
 I. F. F. Benzie, W. Y. Chung, and J. J. Strain, “Antioxidant (reducing) efficiency of ascorbate in plasma is not affected by concentration,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 10, pp. 146, 1999.
 R. Tsao and Z. Deng, “Separation procedures for naturally occurring antioxidant phytochemicals,” Journal of Chromatogr-B Analytical Technology Biomedical Life Science, vol. 812, pp. 85–99, 2004.
 N. C. Cook and S. Samman, “Flavonoidschemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 7, pp. 66–76, 1996.
 A. Scalbert, C. Manach, C. Morand, C. Remsey, and L. Jimenez, “Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 287– 306, 2005.
 S. Gouin, “Microencapsulation: Industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 15, pp. 330–347, 2004.
 V. Nedovic, A. Kalusevic, V. Manojlovic, S. Levic, and B. Bugarski, “An overview of encapsulation technologies for food applications,” Procedia Food Science, vol. 1, pp. 1806–1815, 2011.
 M. J. Ramírez, G. I. Giraldo, and C. E. Orrego, “Modeling and stability of polyphenol in spray dried and freeze-dried fruit encapsulates,” Powder Technology, vol. 277, pp. 89–96, 2015.
 C. G. Rosa, C. D. Borges, R. C. Zambiazi, J. K. Rutz, S. R. Luz, F. D. Krumreich, and M. R. Nunes, “Encapsulation of the phenolic compounds of the blackberry (Rubus fruticosus),” LWT – Food Science and Technology, vol. 58, pp. 527–533, 2014.
 C. Saenz, S. Tapia, J. Chavez, and P. Robert, “Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear,” Journal of Food Chemistry, vol. 114, pp. 616–622, 2009.
 A. M. Bakowka-Barczak and P.P. Kolodziejczyk, “Blackcurrant polyphenols: Their storage stability and microencapsulation,” Journal of Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 34, pp. 1301–1309.