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In order to avoid traffic problems in developed countries, railway vehicles play an important role. Passengers, railway workers, goods, cargo utilization, and dangerous materials are being transferred using various railway vehicles, and each vehicle is designed for a specific manner. Such vehicles include different locomotives that work on either electric or diesel power, in addition to different wagons and carriages attached to these locomotives (passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, freight wagons, and several other types, etc.). Railway vehicles run on railroad tracks, these tracks are designed and maintained by specific machines (diagnostic machines, road renewal machines, ballast screening, tamping and regulating machines, etc.). Several methods are applied when coupling wagons or carriages to each other (automatic coupling, semi-automatic traction, and hook clutch drawbar) depending on vehicle type and function. Railroad vehicles are considered a safe transportation system compared to other systems because they use buffers and bumpers to ensure safety. This paper mounts a minor review of railway vehicles, machines used to make railroads, coupling systems, bumpers and, buffers used to ensure railway vehicle’s safety, and also focuses on the previous studies conducted to enhance such bumpers and lessen collision effects.
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