Hybrid Composites for Railway and Transportation Uses – A Review

Authors

  • Ibrahim Can Kaymaz Department of Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey
  • Alperen Dogru Department of Aircraft Technology, Aviation Higher Vocational School, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
  • Mehmet Ozgur Seydibeyoglu Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14416/j.asep.2022.04.003

Keywords:

Transportation, Railway, Composites, Hybrid materials, Railway track designs

Abstract

The transportation industry with airways, road transportation, shipping, and railways is a huge market for composites both military and civil applications. The need for sustainable and lightweight solutions triggered the need for composite materials. There are many different approaches for composite materials design and manufacturing to optimize the properties in strength, acoustic, and many more like such as ballistic, thermal management, and so onetc. The use of various reinforcing elements for various resins created endless options for materials scientists and designers. Among a variety of possibilities, the use of hybrid reinforcement has been quite a new approach for the composites, which is analogous to composite to optimize the performance of the final properties, such as impact, ultimate tensile strength, modulus value, thermal properties, and other properties. In this review article, the future of the transportation sectors, the advantages of railway transportation in this area, and an overview of the railway and transportation industry are presented. Definitions of hybrid composites are made and examples of applications of hybrid composites used in the railway industry are shown. Studies and research in this field were examined and, in this perspective, the contribution of hybrid composites to future studies is stated.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

A. G. Koniuszewska and J. W. Kaczmar, “Application of polymer based composite materials in transportation,” Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–23, Feb. 2016, doi: 10.1177/147776061603200101.

M. Knight and D. Curliss, “Composite materials,” in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, Jan. 2003, pp. 455–468, doi: 10.1016/B0-12- 227410-5/00128-9.

N. Yaragatti and A. Patnaik, “A review on additive manufacturing of polymers composites,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 44, no. 6 pp. 4150–4157, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr. 2020.10.490.

B. Marques, A. Tadeu, J. António, J. Almeida, and J. de Brito, “Mechanical, thermal and acoustic behaviour of polymer-based composite materials produced with rice husk and expanded cork byproducts,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 239, Apr. 2020, Art. no. 117851, doi: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2019.117851.

Z. K. Awad, T. Aravinthan, Y. Zhuge, and F. Gonzalez, “A review of optimization techniques used in the design of fibre composite structures for civil engineering applications,” Materials & Design, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 534–544, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.1016/J.MATDES.2011.04.061.

Y. Li, Y. Xiao, L. Yu, K. Ji, and D. Li, “A review on the tooling technologies for composites manufacturing of aerospace structures: Materials, structures and processes,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol.154, p.106762, Mar. 2022, Art. no. 106762, doi: 10.1016/J.COMPOSITESA.2021.106762.

W. Gunselmann, “Technologies for increased energy efficiency in railway systems,” in 2005 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, 2005, pp. 1–10, doi: 10.1109/EPE.2005.219712.

T. Koh, M. Shin, Y. Bae, and S. Hwang, “Structural performances of an eco-friendly prestressed concrete sleeper,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 102, pp. 445–454, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2015.10.189.

S. Laryea, M. S. Baghsorkhi, J. F. Ferellec, G. R. McDowell, and C. Chen, “Comparison of performance of concrete and steel sleepers using experimental and discrete element methods,” Transportation Geotechnics, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 225– 240, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1016/J.TRGEO.2014.05.001.

W. Ferdous, A. Manalo, G. V. Erp, T. Aravinthan, S. Kaewunruen, and A. Remennikov, “Composite railway sleepers – Recent developments, challenges and future prospects,” Composite Structures, vol. 134, pp. 158–168, Dec. 2015, doi: 10.1016/J. COMPSTRUCT.2015.08.058.

W. Ferdous and A. Manalo, “Failures of mainline railway sleepers and suggested remedies – Review of current practice,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 44, pp. 17–35, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1016/J. ENGFAILANAL.2014.04.020.

D. L. Bleviss, “Transportation is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, vol. 10, no. 2, 2021. doi: 10.1002/wene.390.

R. Sussman, L. Q. Tan, and C. E. Kormos, “Behavioral interventions for sustainable transportation: An overview of programs and guide for practitioners,” in Transport and Energy Research. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2020, pp. 315–371, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-815965-1.00014-4.

L. M. Ellram, “Environmental sustainability in freight transportation,” in International Encyclopedia of Transportation. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2021, pp. 58–63, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-08-102671-7.10220-9.

S. Yi, “Strengthening of the railway transport capacity,” in Principles of Railway Location and Design, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2018, pp. 473–534, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-813487- 0.00007-x.

M. de A. D’Agosto, “Transportation, an introduction,” in Transportation, Energy Use and Environmental Impacts, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2019, pp. 1–46, doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-813454-2.00001-5.

R. A. Smith, “Fatigue and the railways: An overview,” in Fatigue in Railway Infrastructure, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2009, pp. 1–19, doi: 10.1533/9781845697020.1.

P. K. Mallilck, Fibre-reinforced Composites Materials, Manufacturing and Design, 3rd ed. Florida: CRC Press, 2007.

A. B. M. Supian, S. M. Sapuan, M. Y. M. Zuhri, E. S. Zainudin, and H. H. Ya, “Hybrid reinforced thermoset polymer composite in energy absorption tube application: A review,” Defence Technology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 291–305, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j. dt.2018.04.004.

P. K. Alagesan, “Recent advances of hybrid fiber composites for various applications,” in Hybrid Fiber Composites. New Jersey: Wiley 2020, pp. 381–404. doi: 10.1002/9783527824571.ch18.

T. P. Sathishkumar, J. Naveen, and S. Satheeshkumar, “Hybrid fiber reinforced polymer composites - A review,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 454–471, Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1177/0731684413516393.

E. H. Albuja, J. A. Szpunar, and A. G. Odeshi, “Ballistic impact response of laminated hybrid materials made of 5086-H32 aluminum alloy, epoxy and Kevlar® fabrics impregnated with shear thickening fluid,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 87, pp. 54–65, Aug. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesa. 2016.04.007.

G. Seshanandan, D. Ravindran, and T. Sornakumar, “Mechanical properties of nano titanium oxide particles - hybrid jute-glass FRP composites,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1383–1388, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr. 2016.04.019.

D. Matykiewicz, “Hybrid epoxy composites with both powder and fiber filler: A review of mechanical and thermomechanical properties,” Materials, vol. 13, no. 8, Apr. 2020, Art. no. 1802, doi: 10.3390/MA13081802.

M. Shalauddin, S. Akhter, W. J. Basirun, S. Bagheri, N. S. Anuar, and M. R. Johan, “Hybrid nanocellulose/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite for the electrochemical sensing of diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical drugs and biological fluids,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 304, pp. 323–333, May 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.03.003.

J. G. Rose, P. F. Teixeira, and N. E. Ridgway, “Utilization of asphalt/bituminous layers and coatings in railway trackbeds: A compendium of international applications,” in Joint Rail Conference, 2010, pp. 239–255, doi: 10.1115/ JRC2010-36146.

X. Xiao, D. Cai, L. Lou, Y. Shi, and F. Xiao, “Application of asphalt based materials in railway systems: A review,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 304, Oct. 2021, Art. no. 124630, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat. 2021.124630.

The European Asphalt Pavement Association, “Asphalt in railway tracks asphalt in railway tracks EAPA technical review,” EAPA, Brussels, Belgium, 2021.

J. G. Rose, “Test measurements and performance evaluations of in-service railway asphalt trackbeds,” University of Kentucky, Kentucky, USA, 2002.

B. Warren, “Field application of expanding rigid polyurethane stabilization of railway track substructure,” M.S. thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin—Madison, May 2015.

C. Santulli, “Natural fiber-reinforced composites: Recent developments and prospective utilization in railway industries for sleeper manufacturing,” in Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials, and Bioenergy. Sawston, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2019, pp. 225–238, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08- 102426-3.00012-6.

A. Manalo, T. Aravinthan, W. Karunasena, and A. Ticoalu, “A review of alternative materials for replacing existing timber sleepers,” Composite Structures, vol. 92, no. 3. pp. 603–611, Feb. 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.08.046.

W. Ferdous and A. Manalo, “Failures of mainline railway sleepers and suggested remedies – Review of current practice,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 44, pp. 17–35, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1016/J. ENGFAILANAL.2014.04.020.

H. O. Shin, J. M. Yang, Y. S. Yoon, and D. Mitchell, “Mix design of concrete for prestressed concrete sleepers using blast furnace slag and steel fibers,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 73, pp. 39–53, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j. cemconcomp.2016.08.007.

G. L. Golewski, “Green concrete based on quaternary binders with significant reduced of CO2 emissions,” Energies, vol. 14, no. 15, 2021, Art. no. 4558, doi: 10.3390/en14154558.

A. Manalo, T. Aravinthan, W. Karunasena, and A. Ticoalu, “A review of alternative materials for replacing existing timber sleepers,” Composite Structures, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 603–611, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.08.046.

S. Kaewunruen, A. Remennikov, and M. H. Murray, “Limit states design of railway concrete sleepers,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Transport, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 81–85, May 2012.

F. Rezaie, A. M. Bayat, and S. M. Farnam, “Sensitivity analysis of pre-stressed concrete sleepers for longitudinal crack prorogation effective factors,” Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 66, pp. 385–397, Aug. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j. engfailanal.2016.04.015.

P. Zhang, S. Han, G. L. Golewski, and X. Wang, “Nanoparticle-reinforced building materials with applications in civil engineering” Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1–4, 2020.

B. Szostak and G. L. Golewski, “Rheology of cement pastes with siliceous fly ash and the CSH nano-admixture,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 13, May 2021, Art. no. 3640.

É. A.Silva, D. Pokropski, R. You, and S. Kaewunruen, “Comparison of structural design methods for railway composites and plastic sleepers and bearers,” Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 160–177, 2017, doi: 10.1080/13287982.2017.1382045.

G. L. Golewski, “Physical characteristics of concrete, essential in design of fracture - resistant, dynamically loaded reinforced concrete structures” Material Design & Processing Communications, vol. 1, no. 5, May 2019, Art. no. e82, doi: 10.1002/mdp2.82.

S. Ju, J. Yoon, D. Sung, and S. Pyo, “Mechanical properties of coal ash particle-reinforced recycled plastic-based composites for sustainable railway sleepers,” Polymers, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1–15, 2020, doi: 10.3390/polym12102287.

P. Jagadeesh, M. Puttegowda, Y. G. T. Girijappa, S. M. Rangappa, and S. Siengchin, “Carbon fiber reinforced areca/sisal hybrid composites for railway interior applications: Mechanical and morphological properties,” Polymer Composites, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 160–172, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.1002/pc.26364.

W. Ferdous, A. Manalo, O. AlAjarmeh, A. A. Mohammed, C. Salih, P. Yu, M. M. Khotbehsara, and P. Schubel, “Static behaviour of glass fibre reinforced novel composite sleepers for mainline railway track,” Engineering Structures, vol. 229, 2021, Art. no. 111627, doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct. 2020.111627.

M. Robinson, “6.20 - Applications in trains and railways,” in Comprehensive Composite Materials, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2000.

M. Robinson, E. Matsika, and Q. Peng, “Application of composites in rail vehicles,” in 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, 2017, pp. 1–13.

B. Yang, C. Yang, and S. Xiao, “Effect of crash energy distribution on the dynamic behavior of train collisions algorithm,” Journal of Advances in Vehicle Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 133–141, 2016.

A. Bahdon, “Application of composite material (Fiber Glass) on Addis Ababa light railway car body and it structural analysis by FEM,” Ph.D. dissertation, Addis Ababa University, 2017.

R. A. Smith and J. Zhou, “Background of recent developments of passenger railways in China, the UK and other European countries,” Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 925–935, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1631/jzus. A1400295.

A. Önder and M. Robinson, “Investigating the feasibility of a new testing method for GFRP/ polymer foam sandwich composites used in railway passenger vehicles,” Composite Structures, vol. 233, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 111576, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.111576.

J. S. Kim, K. B. Shin, H. J. Yoon, and W. G. Lee, “Durability evaluation of a composite bogie frame with bow-shaped side beams,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 531–536, Feb. 2012, doi: 10.1007/s12206- 011-1034-3.

J. S. Goo, J. S. Kim, and K. B. Shin, “Evaluation of structural integrity after ballast-flying impact damage of a GFRP lightweight bogie frame for railway vehicles,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2349–2356, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1007/s12206-015-0528-9.

W. Geuenich, C. Gunther, and R. Leo, “The dynamics of fiber composite bogies with creepcontrolled wheelsets,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 12, no. 1–3, pp. 134–140, 1983, doi: 10.1080/00423118308968739.

K. W. Jeon, K. B. Shin, and J. S. Kim, “A study on fatigue life and strength of a GFRP composite bogie frame for urban subway trains,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 2405–2410, 2011 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.396.

Downloads

Published

2022-05-27

Issue

Section

Review Articles