Prospective of Magnesium and Alloy-based Composites for Lightweight Railway Rolling Stocks

Authors

  • Paul Thomas Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Chin Wei Lai Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rafie Johan Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14416/j.asep.2022.02.006

Keywords:

Energy saving, Rolling stocks, Magnesium alloy, Lightweight

Abstract

Magnesium and its alloy have superior characteristics and matches to great potential in railway rolling stocks. The low density and high strength make it ideal for lightweight applications, exceptionally for car bodies and rolling stocks. In this study, a comprehensive review has been carried out on magnesium alloy towards its prospective in railroad vehicles, emphasizing fatigue damage, vibration, energy savings, and overcoming wear or friction loss. Furthermore, with better stiffness and strength, the weight reduction contributes to the better energy and fuel-saving for low-speed trains than bullet and high-speed trains. However, the potential application of magnesium and its alloy has a colossal study gap in the railway industry's processing, fabrication, and maintenance that needs further studies and research.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

B. Guo and J. Ke, “The impacts of high-speed rail on sustainable economic development: Evidence from the Central part of China,” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 6, p. 2410, Mar. 2020.

I. Yusoff, B.-K. Ng, and S. A. Azizan, “Towards sustainable transport policy framework: A railbased transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia,” PLoS One, vol. 16, no. 3, p. e0248519, Mar. 2021.

S. Morimoto, Y. Cheng, N. Mizukoshi, and K. Tahara, “Methodological study of evaluating future lightweight vehicle scenarios and CO2 reduction based on life cycle assessment,” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 14, Jul. 2020, Art. no. 5713.

J. Pflieger, M. Fischer, J. Stichling, and P. Eyerer, “Magnesium in automotive lightweight design under life cycle aspects,” in Magnesium: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference Magnesium Alloys and Their Applications. New York: Wiley, 2005, pp. 962–967.

K. Kawajiri, M. Kobayashi, and K. Sakamoto, “Lightweight materials equal lightweight greenhouse gas emissions?: A historical analysis of greenhouse gases of vehicle material substitution,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 253, Apr. 2020, Art. no.119805.

W. G. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Sun, and J.-Y. Lim, “The next generation material for lightweight railway car body structures: Magnesium alloys,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Apr. 2016, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 25–42, doi: 10.1177/0954409716646140.

D. K. Rajak, D. D. Pagar, R. Kumar, and C. I. Pruncu, “Recent progress of reinforcement materials: A comprehensive overview of composite materials,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 6354–6374, Nov. 2019.

P. Predko, D. Rajnovic, M. L. Grilli, B. O. Postolnyi, V. Zemcenkovs, G. Rijkuris, E. Pole, and M. Lisnanskis, “Promising methods for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys in the case of Mg-Al, Mg-Mn-Ce and Mg-Zn-Zr: A recent progress review,” Metals, vol. 11, no. 7, Jul. 2021, Art. no. 1133.

D. Wennberg, “A light weight car body for high-speed trains: Literature study,” KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010.

A. Abbas, V. Rajagopal, and S.-J. Huang, “Magnesium metal matrix composites and their applications,” in Magnesium Alloys Structure and Properties. London, UK: IntechOpen, Feb. 2021.

Verified Market Research, “Magnesium Alloys Market To Reach $3.20 Bn by 2026 Get Sample Report,” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www. verifiedmarketresearch.com/product/magnesiumalloys- market/

Data Bridge Market Research “Global Magnesium Alloys Market – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2027,” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www. databridgemarketresearch.com/reports/globalmagnesium- alloys-market

European Commission, “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Youth Opportunities Initiative,” European Commission, Luxembourg, 2011.

N. A. Mancheri, B. Sprecher, G. Bailey, J. Ge, and A. Tukker, “Effect of Chinese policies on rare earth supply chain resilience,” Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 142, pp. 101– 112, Mar. 2019.

ReportLinker, “Global magnesium alloys industry,” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www. reportlinker.com/p05819614/Global-Magnesium- Alloys-Industry.html?utm_source=GNW

B. Graver, K. Zhang, and D. Rutherford, “CO2 emissions from commercial aviation, 2018,” International Council on Clean Transportation, USA, 2018.

P. Rungskunroch, S. Kaewunruen, and Z.-J. Shen, “An improvement on the end-of-life of high-speed rail rolling stocks considering CFRP composite material replacement,” Frontiers in Built Environment, vol. 5, no. 89, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00089.

N. Sezer, Z. Evis, S. M. Kayhan, A. Tahmasebifar, and M. Koç, “Review of magnesium-based biomaterials and their applications,” Journal of Magnesium and Alloys, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 23–43, Mar. 2018.

S. Liu and H. Guo, “A review of SLMed magnesium alloys: Processing, properties, alloying elements and postprocessing,” Metals, vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2020, Art. no. 1073.

J. S. Koo and H. J. Cho, “Theoretical method for predicting the weight reduction rate of a box-type car body for rolling stock by material substitution design,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 355–363, Jun. 2009.

L. B. Ren, G. F. Quan, Y. G. Xu, D. D. Yin, J. W. Lu, and J. T. Dang, “Effect of heat treatment and pre-deformation on damping capacity of cast Mg-Y binary alloys,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 699, pp. 976–982, Mar. 2017.

X. Jiang, H. Liu , R. Lyu, Y. Fukushima, N. Kawada, Z. Zhang, and D. Ju, “Optimization of magnesium alloy wheel dynamic impact performance,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2019, 2019, Art. no. 2632031, doi: 10.1155/2019/2632031.

M. Esmaily, J. E. Svensson, S. Fajardo, N. Birbilis, G. S. Frankel, S. Virtanen, R. Arrabal, S. Thomas, and L. G. Johansson, “Fundamentals and advances in magnesium alloy corrosion,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 89, pp. 92– 193, Aug. 2017.

M. Kiani, I. Gandikota, M. Rais-Rohani, and K. Motoyama, “Design of lightweight magnesium car body structure under crash and vibration constraints,” Journal of Magnesium and Alloys, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 99–108, Jun. 2014.

B. L. Mordike and T. Ebert, “Magnesium: Properties — applications — potential,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 302, no. 1, pp. 37– 45, Apr. 2001.

Z. Q. Xu, W. H. Ma, Q. Wu, and S. H. Luo, “Coupler rotation behaviour and its effect on heavy haul trains,” International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1818–1838, Dec. 2013, doi: 10.1080/00423114.2013.834369.

H. Yaghoubi, “The most important maglev applications,” Journal of Engineering, vol. 2013, 2013, Art. no. 537986, doi: 10.1155/2013/537986.

A. Khuntiptong and C. Chantalakhana, “Stability improvement of brake disc to mode coupling at high frequency squeal,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Nov. 2020, Art. no. 3514, doi: 10.14416/j.asep. 2020.11.005.

Y. Yao, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Dynamic performances of an innovative coupler used in heavy haul trains,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1288–1303, Oct. 2014, doi: 10.1080/00423114.2014.938664.

S. Junsupasen, W. Pongyart, M. Jongprasithporn, and N. Yodpijit, “Low frequency noise reduction with active noise control in laboratory settings,” KMUTNB International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2018, doi: 10.14416/j.ijast.2018.01.002.

S. K. Thandalam, S. Ramanathan, and S. Sundarrajan, “Synthesis, microstructural and mechanical properties of ex situ zircon particles (ZrSiO4) reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs): A review,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 333–347, Jul. 2015.

C. Xu, M. Zheng, S. Xu, K. Wu, E. Wang, G. Fan, and S. Kamado, “Improving strength and ductility of Mg–Gd–Y–Zn–Zr alloy simultaneously via extrusion, hot rolling and ageing,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 643, pp. 137– 141, Sep. 2015.

S. V. S. Prasad, S. B. Prasad, K. Verma, R. K. Mishra, V. Kumar, and S. Singh, “The role and significance of Magnesium in modern day research- A review,” Journal of Magnesium and Alloys, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jma.2021.05.012.

I. S. T. Berad and J. Jayakumar, “Fabrication & characterisation of Mg-MWCNT & AZ31- MWCNT nanocomposites,” International Journal of Innovative Science Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 4431–4436, 2007.

H. Singh, N. Jit, and A. K. Tyagi, “An overview of metal matrix composite: Processing and sic based mechanical properties,” Journal of Engineering Research and Studies, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 72–78, 2011.

P.-C. Lin, S.-J. Huang, and P.-S. Hong, “Formation of magnesium metal matrix composites Al2O3 P/AZ91D and their mechanical properties after heat treatment,” Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 237–245, 2010.

R. Anish, G. R. Singh, and M. Sivapragash, “Techniques for processing metal matrix composite; A survey,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 38, pp. 3846–3854, 2012.

Z. Shi, G. Song, and A. Atrens, “Corrosion resistance of anodised single-phase Mg alloys,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 1–2, pp. 492–503, Sep. 2006.

M. K. Kulekci, “Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 851–865, Nov. 2007.

A. R. Mirak, M. Divandari, S. M. A. Boutorabi, and J. A. Taylor, “Effect of oxide film defects generated during mould filling on mechanical strength and reliability of magnesium alloy castings (AZ91),” International Journal of Cast Metals Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 188–194, Jun. 2013, doi: 10.1179/1743133611Y.0000000037.

W. D. Griffiths and N. W. Lai, “Double oxide film defects in cast magnesium alloy,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 190–196, Jan. 2007.

S. P. Cashion, N. J. Ricketts, and P. C. Hayes, “The mechanism of protection of molten magnesium by cover gas mixtures containing sulphur hexafluoride,” Journal of Light Metals, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43–47, Feb. 2002.

L. Ren, L. Fan, M. Zhou, Y. Guo, Y. Zhang, C. J. Boehlert, and G. Quan, “Magnesium application in railway rolling stocks: A new challenge and opportunity for lightweighting,” International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 81–88, Jun. 2018.

R. O. Hussein and D. O. Northwood, “Improving the performance of magnesium alloys for automotive applications,” in the 7th International Conference on High Performance and Optimum Design of Structures and Materials (HPSM), 2014, vol. 137, doi: 10.2495/HPSM140491.

İ. A. Reşitoğlu, K. Altinişik, and A. Keskin, “The pollutant emissions from diesel-engine vehicles and exhaust aftertreatment systems,” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 15–27, Jun. 2014.

Q. P. Yi and C. P. Tang, “Environmental impact assessment of magnesium alloy automobile hub based on life cycle assessment,” Journal of Central South University, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1870–1878, Aug. 2018.

R.-C. Zeng, Z.-Z. Yin, X.-B. Chen, and D.-K. Xu, “Corrosion types of magnesium alloys,” in Magnesium Alloys. London, UK: IntechOpen, Nov. 2018.

Z.-Z. Yin, W.-C. Qi, R.-C. Zeng, X.-B. Chen, C.-D. Gu, S.-K. Guan, and Y.-F. Zheng, “Advances in coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloys,” Journal of Magnesium and Alloy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 42–65, Mar. 2020.

X. G. Zhang, “Galvanic corrosion,” in Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2011.

S. Cecchel, D. Chindamo, M. Collotta, G. Cornacchia, A. Panvini, G. Tomasoni, and M. Gadola, “Lightweighting in light commercial vehicles: Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of a safety-relevant component,” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 2043–2054, Oct. 2018.

M. Delogu, L. Zanchi, C. A. Dattilo, and M. Ierides, “Parameters affecting the sustainability trade-off between production and use stages in the automotive lightweight design,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 69, pp. 534–539, Jan. 2018.

J. Song, J. She, D. Chen, and F. Pan, “Latest research advances on magnesium and magnesium alloys worldwide,” Journal of Magnesium and Alloys, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–41, Mar. 2020.

Downloads

Published

2022-05-27

Issue

Section

Review Articles