Optimization for Epoxidation of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Oil Based Trimethylolpropane Ester Biolubricant

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Noor Hafizah Arbain
Jumat Salimon
Nadia Salih
Waled Abdo Ahmed


Epoxidized Jatropha curcas-based trimethylolpropane triester (ETMPJO) was prepared by in-situ epoxidation reaction using trimethylolpropane ester (TMPJO) and catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of formic acid. The epoxidation process was optimized through variable parameters, such as hydrogen peroxide to tmpjo molar ratio, formic acid to TMPJO molar ratio, temperature, and time of the epoxidation reaction. The results showed the epoxidation optimal condition was achieved at the molar ratio of TMPJO to H2O2 and formic acid of 1: 2.0 and 1: 2.5, the temperature of 50 °C for 2 h, respectively. The obtained ETMPJO was characterized using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and gas chromatography analysis. The FTIR spectrum of ETMPJO showed the appearance of peaks at 825 and 908 cm–1 for the epoxy functional group. ¹H NMR spectrum showed a chemical shift at 2.88 ppm of the epoxide group protons. 13C NMR spectrum showed the chemical signal of carbon epoxide group at 54–57 ppm. At the optimal condition, the resultant ETMPJO obtained 91% yield with a comparatively high relative conversion oxirane (RCO) of 87%. With high oxygen oxirane content (OOC) of 4.38, ETMPJO owns a good characteristic for an intermediate compound for possible further conversion to produce high-end products. Moreover, its physiochemical and lubrication characteristics indicated that ETMPJO could be used as biolubricants for industrial applications.

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How to Cite
Arbain, N. H., Salimon, J., Salih, N., & Ahmed, W. A. (2022). Optimization for Epoxidation of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Oil Based Trimethylolpropane Ester Biolubricant. Applied Science and Engineering Progress, 15(3), 5552. https://doi.org/10.14416/j.asep.2021.10.009
Research Articles


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