Main Article Content
Friction between rubbing pairs plays a key role in operating machines in an efficient approach. In some intended works or occasional circumstances, slipping friction may occur during dry or boundary lubrication. Lubricating mechanical equipment using proper and efficient lubricant agents is tremendously necessary. This work explores the synthesized triacetin as an additive for lubricant under slipping friction between steel rollers and aluminum, brass, copper, and stainless-steel rods under boundary lubrication. The metal surface morphology under the lubricant with 10% triacetin additive covering roughness periphery is investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope imaging. In the dry slipping condition, the friction coefficient is lower for the copper-steel pair compared to the aluminum-steel combination. Compared to the absence of triacetin additive, the steel roller combinations with the rod metal specimens undergoing boundary lubrication with 10% triacetin additive in the lubricant can reduce the slipping friction coefficient by up to 49.2% in the case of steel roller and brass rod pair. The quantitative influences of triacetin additive on metal rubbing pair friction coefficients under boundary lubrication are inversely exponential correlated to triacetin additive, varying in the range of 0 to 10% v/v.
B. Gurrutxaga-Lerma, “On the transient planar contact problem in the presence of dry friction and slip,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 193–194, pp. 314–327, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2020.02.031.
H. S. Han and K. H. Lee, “Experimental verification of the mechanism on stick-slip nonlinear friction induced vibration and its evaluation method in water-lubricated stern tube bearing,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 182, pp. 147–161, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.04.078.
E. Larsson, P. Olander, and S. Jacobson, “Boric acid as fuel additive – Friction experiments and reflections around its effect on fuel saving,” Tribology International, vol. 128, pp. 302–312, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.07.004.
F. L. G. Borda, S. J. R. De Oliveira, L. M. S. M. Lazaro, and A. J. K. Leiróz, “Experimental investigation of the tribological behavior of lubricants with additive containing copper nanoparticles,” Tribology International, vol. 117, pp. 52–58, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint. 2017.08.012.
D. Li, D. Botto, C. Xu, T. Liu, and M. Gola, “A micro-slip friction modeling approach and its application in underplatform damper kinematics,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 161–162, Oct. 2019, Art. no. 105029, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2019.105029.
R. C. Flicek, R. Ramesh, and D. A. Hills, “A complete frictional contact: The transition from normal load to sliding,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 92, pp. 18–27, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2015.03.006.
N. Antoni, “A further analysis on the analogy between friction and plasticity in solid mechanics,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 121, pp. 34–51, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j. ijengsci.2017.08.012.
A. Lu, C. Yin, and N. Zhang, “Analytic stress solutions for a lined circular tunnel under frictional slip contact conditions,” European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, vol. 75, pp. 10– 20, May–Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.euromechsol. 2019.01.008.
J. A. S. Malik, S. Koetniyom, A. Lamjahdy, and B. Markert, “Study of temperature and wear variations of aluminium in general dry sliding contact,” KMUTNB International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2018, doi: 10.14416/j.ijast.2017.12.006.
X. C. Wang, B. Huang, R. L. Wang, J. L. Mo, and H. Ouyang, “Friction-induced stick-slip vibration and its experimental validation,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 142, Aug. 2020, Art. no. 106705, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp. 2020.106705.
E. Pasternak, A. Dyskin, and I. Karachevtseva, “Oscillations in sliding with dry friction. Friction reduction by imposing synchronised normal load oscillations,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 154, Sep. 2020, Art. no. 103313, doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2020.103313.
Ö. Dincel, I. Simsek, and D. Özyürek, “Investigation of the wear behavior in simulated body fluid of 316L stainless steels produced by mechanical alloying method,” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 35–40, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j. jestch.2020.12.001.
Z. Xu, W. Lou, G. Zhao, M. Zhang, J. Hao, and X. Wang, “Pentaerythritol rosin ester as an environmentally friendly multifunctional additive in vegetable oil-based lubricant,” Tribology International, vol. 135, pp. 213–218, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.02.038.
N. Shaigan, W. S. Neill, J. Littlejohns, D. Song, and S. Lafrance, “Adsorption of lubricity improver additives on sliding surfaces,” Tribology International, vol. 141, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 105920, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.105920.
P. Lan, L. L. Iaccino, X. Bao, and A. A. Polycarpou, “The effect of lubricant additives on the tribological performance of oil and gas drilling applications up to 200 °C,” Tribology International, vol. 141, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 105896, doi: 10.1016/j. triboint.2019.105896.
T. Massoud, R. P. De Matos, T. Le Mogne, M. Belin, M. Cobian, B. Thiébaut, S. Loehlé, F. Dahlem, and C. Minfray, “Effect of ZDDP on lubrication mechanisms of linear fatty amines under boundary lubrication conditions,” Tribology International, vol. 141, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 105954, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.105954.
T. I. Zohdi, “On the reduction of heat generation in lubricants using microscale additives,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 62, pp. 84–89, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j. ijengsci.2012.08.001.
K. Mahmood, M. Sajid, N. Ali, and T. Javed, “Heat transfer analysis in the time-dependent slip flow over a lubricated rotating disc,” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1949–1957, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jestch.2016.07.009.
P. Wen, Y. Lei, W. Li, and M. Fan, “Two-dimension layered nanomaterial as lubricant additives: Covalent organic frameworks beyond oxide graphene and reduced oxide graphene,” Tribology International, vol. 143, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 106051, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.106051.
Y. Cui, M. Ding, T. Sui, W. Zheng, G. Qiao, S. Yan, and X. Liu, “Role of nanoparticle materials as water-based lubricant additives for ceramics,” Tribology International, vol. 142, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 105978, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.105978.
S. Karnjanakom, P. Maneechakr, C. Samart, and G. Guan, “Ultrasound-assisted acetylation of glycerol for triacetin production over green catalyst: A liquid biofuel candidate,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 173, pp. 262– 270, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman. 2018.07.086.
L. Zhou, E. Al-Zaini, and A. A. Adesina, “Catalytic characteristics and parameters optimization of the glycerol acetylation over solid acid catalysts,” Fuel, vol. 103, pp. 617–625, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.05.042.
J. S. Ribeiro, D. Celante, L. N. Brondani, D. O. Trojahn, C. Da Silva, and F. De Castilhos, “Synthesis of methyl esters and triacetin from macaw oil (Acrocomia aculeata) and methyl acetate over γ-alumina,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 124, pp. 84–90, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.07.062.
B. T. F. de Mello, C. P. Trentini, N. Postaue, and C. D. Silva, “Sequential process for obtaining methyl esters and triacetin from crambe oil using pressurized methyl acetate,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 147, May 2020, Art. no. 112233, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112233.
C. Odibi, M. Babaie, A. Zare, M. N. Nabi, T. A. Bodisco, R. J. Brown, “Exergy analysis of a diesel engine with waste cooking biodiesel and triacetin,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 198, Oct. 2019, Art. no. 111912, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.111912.
X. Dreux, J.-C. Majestéa, C. Carrot, A. Argoud, and C. Vergelati, “Viscoelastic behaviour of cellulose acetate/triacetin blends by rheology in the melt state,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 222, Oct. 2019, Art. no. 114973, doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol. 2019.114973.
C. Delesma, R. Castillo, P. Y. Sevilla-Camacho, P. J. Sebastian, and J. Muñiz, “Density functional study on the transesterification of triacetin assisted by cooperative weak interactions via a gold heterogeneous catalyst: Insights into biodiesel production mechanisms,” Fuel, vol. 202, pp. 98– 108, Aug. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.04.022.
A. Zare, M. N. Nabi, T. A. Bodisco, F. M. Hossain, M. M. Rahman, Z. D. Ristovski, and R. J. Brown, “The effect of triacetin as a fuel additive to waste cooking biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions,” Fuel, vol. 182, pp. 640–649, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j. fuel.2016.06.039.
N. Binhayeeding, S. Klomklao, and K. Sangkharak, “Utilization of waste glycerol from biodiesel process as a substrate for mono-, di-, and triacylglycerol production,” Energy Procedia, vol. 138, pp. 895–900, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.10.130.
G. Dizoğlu and E. Sert, “Fuel additive synthesis by acetylation of glycerol using activated carbon/UiO-66 composite materials,” Fuel, vol. 281, Dec. 2020, Art. no. 118584, doi: 10.1016/j. fuel.2020.118584.
M. S. Khayoon and B. H. Hameed, “Acetylation of glycerol to biofuel additives over sulfated activated carbon catalyst,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 9229–9235, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.035.
E. Marušić-Paloka and I. Pažanin, “Effects of boundary roughness and inertia on the fluid flow through a corrugated pipe and the formula for the Darcy–Weisbach friction coefficient,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 152, Jul. 2020, Art. no. 103293, doi: 10.1016/ j.ijengsci.2020.103293.
Q. Xu, W. Tao, S. Qu, and Q. Yang, “A cohesive zone model for the elevated temperature interfacial debonding and frictional sliding behavior,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 110, pp. 45–52, Apr. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech. 2015.01.018.
R. I. Taylor, N. Morgan, R. Mainwaring, and T. Davenport, “How much mixed/boundary friction is there in an engine - and where is it?,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, vol. 234, no. 10, pp. 1563–1579, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1177/1350650119875316.
G. Xu, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Hu, and L. Lin, “Effect of lubricant additives on the oxidation characteristics of diesel engine particulate matter,” International Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2020, Nov. 2020, Art. no. 8867515, doi: 10.1155/ 2020/8867515.
A. Messaâdi, N. Dhouibi, H. Hamda, F. B. M. Belgacem, Y. H. Adbelkader, N. Ouerfelli, and A. H. Hamzaoui, “A new equation relating the viscosity Arrhenius temperature and the activation energy for some Newtonian classical solvents,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2015, May 2015, Art. no. 163262, doi: 10.1155/2015/163262.
D.-H. Cho, B. Bhushan, and J. Dyess, “Mechanisms of static and kinetic friction of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and high-density polyethylene pairs during sliding,” Tribology International, vol. 94, pp. 165–175, Feb. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2015.08.027.
R. -M. Wang, S. -R. Zheng, and Y. -P. Zheng, Polymer Matrix Composites and Technology. England: Woodhead Publishing, 2011.
V. R. Sastri, Plastics in Medical Devices: Properties, Requirements, and Applications, 2nd ed. New York: William Andrew, 2013.
N. Adachi, Y. Matsuo, Y. Todaka, M. Fujimoto, N. Hino, M. Mitsuhara, Y. Oba, Y. Shiihara, Y. Umeno, and M. Nishida, “Effect of grain boundary on the friction coefficient of pure Fe under the oil lubrication,” Tribology International, vol. 155, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 106781, doi: 10.1016/j. triboint.2020.106781.
J. J. Valencia and P. N. Quested, “Thermophysical properties,” ASM Handbook, vol. 15, Oct. 2008, doi: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005240.
B. J. Keene, “Review of data for the surface tension of pure metals,” International Materials Reviews, vol. 38, pp. 157–192, Jul. 2013, doi: 10.1179/imr.19188.8.131.52.
K. Ono, “Modified Reynolds equations for thin film lubrication analysis with high viscosity surface layers on both solid surfaces and analysis of micro-tapered bearing,” Tribology International, vol. 151, Nov. 2020, Art. no. 106515, doi: 10.1016/ j.triboint.2020.106515.
H. Spikes, “Friction modifier additives,” Tribology Letters, vol. 60, Sep. 2015, Art. no. 5, doi: 10.1007/ s11249-015-0589-z.
J. Guegan, M. Southby, and H. Spikes, “Friction modifier additives, synergies and antagonisms,” Tribology Letters, vol. 67, Jun. 2019, Art. no. 83, doi: 10.1007/s11249-019-1198-z.