Main Article Content
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is a high quality welding process widely used in most industries. However, the process is limited to higher welding speed and higher deposition rate. To overcome this limitation, the GTAW process is modified in such a way that filler metal is heated prior to entering into the weld pool. This heating is carried out by resistance heating. Hot wire GTAW (HW-GTAW) ensures the availability of arc energy to melt the base metal. This results in an increase in deposition rate and additionally, increases the welding speeds to a large extent. Welding is an important form of joining materials and is most significant for the application of structural components. This paper reviews the application of the hot wire technique during conventional GTA welding, thereby providing the benefits in terms of metallurgical control, energy efficiency and rate of deposition. This process has the potential to achieve high efficiency and welding faster with lower heat input. The HW-GTAW process is widely used in welding various novel materials and it is a promising alternative to the conventional GTAW process with lower heat input and narrower heat affected zones. This process not only eliminates the various defects in the weld joints but also increases productivity in industries.
R. W. Messler, Principles of Welding: Processes, Physics, Chemistry, and Metallurgy. New Jersey: Wiley, 1999.
K. Dinesh, B. Anandvel, and K. Devakumaran, “Visualisation of hot wire gas tungsten arc welding process,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2512–2517, May 2018.
D. K. Singh, V. Sharma, R. Basu, and M. Eskandari, “Understanding the effect of weld parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties in dissimilar steel welds,” in 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Materials Processing and Manufacturing, Procedia Manufacturing, 2019, vol. 35, pp. 986–991, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j. promfg.2019.06.046.
J. F. Saenger and A. F. Manz, “High deposition gas tungsten arc welding,” Welding Journal, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 386–393, 1968.
P. Shah and C. Agarwal, “A review on twin tungsten inert gas welding process accompanied by hot wire pulsed power source,” Journal of Welding and Joining, vol. 37, pp. 41–51, 2019. doi: 10.5781/JWJ.2019.37.2.7.
A. Berthier, P. Paillard, M. Carin, S. Pellirn, and F. Valensi, “TIG and A-TIG welding experimental investigations and comparison with simulation part-2 arc constriction and arc temperature,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 616–621, 2012.
A. F. Manz, J. F. Saenger, N. D. Freeman, S. Plains, and T. Frank, “Method for depositing metal with a TIG arc,” U.S. Patent 3483354A, Dec. 9, 1969.
J. S. Chen, Y. Lu, R. Li, and Y. H. Zhang, “Gas tungsten arc welding using an arcing wire,” Welding Journal, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 261–269, Oct. 2012.
A. F. Manz, “Hot wire welding and surfacing techniques,” The Welding Research Council, New York, WRC Bulletin 223, Jan. 1977.
K. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Myoga, and K. Kusano, “Development of hot wire TIG welding methods using pulsed current to heat filler wire- research on pulse heated hot wire TIG welding process,” Welding International, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 456– 468, 2004, doi: 10.1533/wint.2004.3281.
J. Vora, V. K. Patel, S. Srinivasan, R. Chaudhari, D. Y. Pimenov, K. Giasin, and S. Sharma, “Optimization of activated tungsten inert gas welding process parameters using heat transfer search algorithm: With experimental validation using case studies” Metals, vol. 11, no. 981, pp. 1–16, 2021, doi: 10.3390/met11060981.
R. S. Vidyarthy and D. K. Dwivedi, “Microstructural and mechanical properties assessment of the P91A-TIG weld joints,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 31, pp. 523–535, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jmapro.2017.12.012.
R. S. Vidyarthy, A. Kulkarni, and D. K. Dwivedi, “Study of microstructure and mechanical property relationships of A-TIG welded P91-316L dissimilar steel joint” Materials Science & Engineering, vol. 695, pp. 249–257, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j. msea.2017.04.038.
B. K. Henon, “Advances in automatic hot wire GTAW case study,” 2018. [Online]. Available: www.arcmachines.com/news/casestudies/ advances-automatic-hot-wire-gtaw-tig-welding
K. Shinozaki, M. Yamamoto, Y. Nagamitsu, T. Uchida, K. Mitsuhata, and T. Nagashima, “Melting phenomenon during ultra-high speed GTA welding method using pulse heated hot wire,” Quarterly Journal of the Japan Welding Society, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 22–26, 2009, doi: 10.2207/qjjws.27.22s.
S. Ueguri, Y. Tabata, T. Shimizu, and T. Mizuno, “Control of deposition rates of hot wire TIG welding,” Welding International, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 736–742, 1987.
J. F. Saenger “Gas tungsten arc hot wire welding – A versatile new production tool,” Welding Journal, pp. 363–371, May 1970.
J. Franz and H. Heuser, “TIG hot wire surfacing,” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://wenku.baidu. com/view/bfdbee0cab00b52acfc789eb172 ded630b1c98b1.
S. Das, J. J. Vora, V. Patel, W. Li, J. Andersson, D. Y. Pimenove, K. Giasin, and S. Wojciechowski, “Experimental investigation on welding of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel with regulated metal deposition and GMAW technique incorporating metal cored wires,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 15, pp. 1007–1016, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.08.081.
S. Das, J. Vora, V. Patel, J. Andersson, D. Y. Pimenov, and K. Giasin, “Elucidating the effect of step cooling heat treatment on the properties of 2.25 Cr–1.0 Mo steel welded with a combination of GMAW techniques incorporating metal-cored wires,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 6033, 2021, doi: 10.3390/ma14206033.
A.Pai, I. Sogalad, S. Basavarajappa, and P. Kumar, “Assessment of impact strength of welds produced by cold wire and hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 24, pp. 983–994, 2020.
A. Pai, I. Sogalad, S. Basavarajappa, and P. Kumar, “Results of tensile, hardness and bend tests of modified 9Cr 1Mo steel welds: Comparison between cold wire and hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 169, pp. 125–141, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2018.12.002.
M. Santangelo, B. Silwal, and A. Purdy, “Vibration assisted robotic hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) for additive manufacturing of large metallic parts,” in Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, 2016, pp. 1548–1556.
B. Silwal and M. Santangelo, “Effect of vibration and hot-wire gas tungsten arc (GTA) on the geometric shape,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 251, pp. 138–145, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.08.010.
F. Cao, S. Chen, and C. Du, “HW TIG built based on the heat conduction method temperature controlling model developed,” Energy Procedia, vol. 144, pp. 9–15, 2018.
T. Ungethüm, E. Spaniol, M. Hertel, and U. Fussel, “Analysis of metal transfer and weld geometry in hot-wire GTAW with indirect resistive heating,” Welding in the World, vol. 64, pp. 2109–2117, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s40194-020-00986-0.
W. Lucas, TIG and Plasma Welding, 2nd ed. Tennessee: Abingdon Publishing, 1990.
A. L. Voigt, T. Vieira da Cunha, and C. E. Nino, “Conception, implementation and evaluation of induction wire heating system apply to hot wire GTAW (IHW-GTAW),” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 281, 2020, Art. no. 116615, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116615.
C. Ma, B. Chen, C. tan, X. Song, and J. Feng, “Characteristics of droplet transfer, molten pool formation, and weld bead formation of oscillating laser hot-wire tungsten inert gas hybrid welding,” Journal of Laser Applications, vol. 33, no.1, 2021, doi: 10.2351/7.0000189.
A. Sharma, D. K. Verma, and S. Kumaran, “Effect of post weld heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire GTA welded joints of SA213 T91 steel,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 8049–8056, 2018.
S. C. Pratap, T. Senthikumar, V. Singh, and A. Santhakumari, “Evaluation of ERNiCrFe-7A filler wire for dissimilar welding of SS304H & T91 material using hot wire TIG welding process,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 8073–8078, 2019.
FMA Communications, “Basics of Hot wire TIG,” 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www. thefabricator.com
S. I. Talabi, O. B. Owolabi, J. A. Adebisi, and T. Yahaya, “Effect of welding variables on mechanical properties of low carbon steel welded joint,” Advances in Production Engineering & Management, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 181–186, 2014, doi: 10.14743/apem2014.4.186.
E. A. G. Olivares and V. M. V. Diaz, “Study of the hot-wire TIG process with AISI-316L filler material, analysing the effect of magnetic arc blow on the dilution of the weld bead,” Welding International, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 139–148, 2017, doi: 10.1080/09507116.2017.1347327.
S. Kou, Welding Metullurgy, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2003
A. A. Shirali and K. C. Mills, “The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds,” Welding Research Supplement, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 347–353, Jul. 1993.
S. P. Tewari, A. Gupta, and J. Prakash, “Effect of welding parameters on the weldability of material,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 512– 516, 2010.
M. R. A. Padmanaban, B. Neelakandan, and D. Kandasamy, “A study on process characteristics and performance of hot wire tungesten arc welding process for high temperature materials,” Material Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 76–87, 2017, doi: 10.1590/1980-5373-MR-2016-0321.
B. P. Agrawal and P. K. Ghosh, “Thermal modelling of multi-pass narrow gap pulse current GMA welding by single seam per layer deposition technique,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1251–1268, 2010.
D. Radaij, Heat Effects on Welding. New York: Springer, 1992.
A. Pai, I. Sogalad, S. K. Albert, P. Kumar, T. K. Mitra, and S. Basavarajappa, “Comparison of microstructure and properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo welds produced by narrow gap hot wire and cold wire gas tungeten arc welding processes,” Procedia Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 1482–1491, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijpvp. 2018.12.002.
C. P. T. Selvan, I. Dinaharan, R. Palanivel, and K. Kalaiselvan, “Predicting the tensile strength and deducing the role of processing conditions of hot wire gas tungsten arc welded pure nickel tubes using an empirical relationship,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 188, 2020, Art. no. 104220, doi: 10.1016/j.ijpvp. 2020.104220.
T. K. Mitra, A. Pai, and P. Kumar, “Challenges in manufacture of PFBR Steam Generators,” Energy Procedia, vol. 7, pp. 317–322, 2011.
A. R. H. Midawi, E. B. F. Santos, A. P. Gerlich, R. Pistor, and M. Haghshenas, “Comparison of hardness and microstructures produced using GMAW and hot-wire TIG mechanized welding of high strength steels,” in Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE2014, 2014, vol. 14, doi: 10.1115/IMECE2014-36482.
P. Poolperm, W. Nakkiew, and N. Naksuk, “Experimental investigation of additive manufacturing using a hot-wire plasmawelding process on titanium parts,” Materials, vol. 14, 2021, Art. no. 1270, doi: 10.3390/ma14051270.
A. Santhakumari, “Advances in gas tungsten arc welding processes,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://weldfabtechtimes.com/article/advancesin- gas-tungsten-arc-welding-processes/
J. Jae-ho, S. R. Kim, and S. M. Cho, “A study to improve productivity in narrow gap butt TIG welding,” Journal of Welding and Joining, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2016, doi: 10.5781/ JWJ.2016.34.1.68.
M. Zhu, X. Luo, and P. Sun, “Narrow gap hot wire TIG welding of TP321 steel pipe,” Transactions of the china Welding Institution, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 79–82, 2016.
J. Norrish, Advanced Welding Processes. Sawston, UK: Woodhead publishing, 2006.
C. Pandey, M. M. Mahapatra, P. Kumar, and N. Saini, “Effect of normalization and tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of V-groove and narrow groove P91 pipe weldments,” Materials Science & Engineering A, vol. 685, pp. 39–49, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.12.079.
P. K. Taraphdar, R. Kumar, A. Giri, C. Pandey, M. Mahapatra, and K. Sridhar, “Residual stress distribution in thick double-V butt welds with varying groove configuration, restraints and mechanical tensioning,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 68, pp. 1405–1417, 2021.
R. Choudhary, “Use of TIP-TIG technology in process equipment plants,” IWS Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 20–25, Jan 2019.
G. Pike, “Evaluation of the Tip Tig welding system, a semi‐automatic hot wire GTAW process, compared to manual GTAW,” Newport News Shipbuilding, A Division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Virginia, Rep. E. 66-7, 2013.
T. Na, M. Chandra, S. Sharma, and S. S. Panda, “Study of mechanical and metallurgical properties of cold and hot reciprocating wire TIG welding on AISI 1035 carbon steel,” Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India), vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 159–166, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s40033- 021-00249-2.
R. H. Gonçalves e Silva, L. Eduardo dos Santos Paes, M. P. Okuyama, G. Luis de Sousa, A. B. Viviani, L. M. Cirino, and M. B. Schwedersky, “TIG welding process with dynamic feeding: A characterization approach,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 96, pp. 4467–4475, 2018, doi: 10.1007/ s00170-018-1929-6.
L. Wang, P. Zhao, J. Pan, L. Tan, and K. Zhu, “Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of double-sided synchronous TIP TIG arc butt welded duplex stainless steel,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 112, pp. 303–312, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s00170-020-06375-7.
C. Pandey, “Mechanical and metallurgical characterization of dissimilar P92/SS304 L welded joints under varying heat treatment regimes,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 2126–2142, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11661- 020-05660-0.
P. R. Kannan, V. Muthupandi, and K. Devakumaran, “On the effect of temperature coefficient of surface tension on shape and geometry of weld beads in hot wire gas tungsten arc welding process,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 7845–7852, 2018.
H. He, S. Lin, and C. Fan, “TIG welding-brazing joint of aluminium to stainless steel with hot wire,” China Welding, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 25–30, Sep. 2013.
K. J. Karthick, K. G. Kumar, and P. Sundarraj, “Comparison of properties of super 304H tube welded by manual and semiautomatic hot wire GTAW,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 2395–0056, 2019.
L. Bao, Y. Wang, and T. Han, “Microstructure and properties of lean duplex stainless steel UNS S32101 welded joint by hot wire TIG welding,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 993, pp. 466–473, 2020, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.993.466.
D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, and H. Li, “Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: Technologies, developments and future interests,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 81, pp. 465–481, 2015.
N. Guo and M. C. Leu, “Additive manufacturing technology, applications and research needs,” Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 215–243, 2013.
V. Petrovic, J. V. Haro, O. Jordá, J. Delgado, J. R. Blasco, and L. Portolés, “Additive layer manufacturing: State of the art in industrial applications through case studies,” International Journal of Production Research, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1061–1079, 2011.
P. Zhillin, G. Govrilov, E. Gerasimov, and O. Melnichenko, “Advance welding & cladding methods using auxiliary cold & hot wires,” Procedia Structural Integrity, vol. 30, pp. 209– 215, 2020.
K. Hori, T. Myoga, M. Shinomiya, E. Watanabe, K. Kusano, T. Takuwa, and M. Hafuri, “Semiautomatic hot wire tig welding equipment,” U.S. Patent 4801781, Jan. 1989.
B. Silwal, J. Walker, and D. West, “Hot-wire GTAW cladding: Inconel 625 on 347 stainless steel,” International Journal Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 102, pp. 3839– 3848, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-03448-0.
K. Gunther, J. P. Bergmann, C. Zhang, M. Rosenberger, and G. Notni, “Hot wire-assisted gas metal arc welding of Ni-based hardfacing,” Welding Journal, vol. 97, pp. 99–107, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.29391/2018.97.009.  F. Brownlie, C. Anene, T. Hodgkiess, A. Pearson, and A. M. Galloway, “Comparison of hot wire TIG stellite 6 weld cladding and lost wax cast stellite 6 under corrosive wear conditions,” Wear, vol. 404–405, pp. 71–81, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j. wear.2018.03.004.
E. Spaniol, T. Ungethum, M. Trautmann, K. Andrusch, M. Hertel, and U. Fussel, “Development of a novel TIG hot-wire process for wire and arc additive manufacturing,” Welding in the World, vol. 64, pp. 1329–1340, 2020, doi: 10.1007/ s40194-020-00871-w.
S. X. Lv, X. B. Tian, H. T. Wang, and S. Q. Yang, “Arc heating hot wire assisted arc welding technique for low resistance welding wire,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.12, no.5, pp. 431–435, 2007, doi: 10.1179/ 174329307X213828.
S. V. Baklanova, A. S. Gordynetsb, A. S. Kiselevc, and M. S. Slobodyan, “New developments to reduce arc blow during SMAW of pipelines,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 938, pp. 96– 103, 2018, doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/ MSF.938.96
P. G. Ribeiro, R. A. Ribeiro, P. D. C. Assuncao, E. M. Branga, and A. P. Gerlich, “Metal transfer mechanisms in hot-wire gas metal arc welding,” Welding Journal, vol. 99, no. 11, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.29391/2020.99.026.
F. Lancaster, Metallurgy of Welding, 6th ed. Sawston, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 1999.