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This research focused on thermal stability, color fastness and UV protection properties enhancing cotton fabric coated with ZnO and carbon black nanoparticles and dyed with Terminalia catappa leaves powder. The XRD patterns of ZnO nanoparticles contained peaks associated with the hexagonal system, which can be attributed to the structure of ZnO wurtzite. The XRD pattern of carbon black showed a typical amorphous structure. SEM images of the coated cotton surface revealed a scattering of carbon and zinc oxide nanoparticles that increases in size in relation to the amount of carbon and zinc nanoparticles. The ATR-FT-IR spectra of cotton coated with ZnO and carbon revealed the presence of O-H bond, H-C-H bond, C-O-C bond, C-O bond and Zn-O bond. TGA analysis revealed that the cotton coated with zinc oxide and carbon exhibited a greater than 100 °C heat resistance. TGA analysis of cotton coated with CZ4 nanoparticles at 352 °C revealed a weight loss of 70.61%, whereas uncoated cotton lost 85.96 percent of its weight at 358 °C. Light fastness and washing fastness properties of cotton coated with zinc oxide and carbon nanoparticles were 4–5 (good to very good). The FE-SEM and EDS elemental analyses were used to confirm residual elements affected by the excellent UV protective functions of the coated cotton. Cotton fabrics coated with Zn3 and CZn4 are the optimal condition for enhancing the thermal stability, washability, and UV protection of dyed cotton. After 30 wash cycles, the EDS analysis revealed that the cotton fabrics coated with Zn3 and CZn4 retained their durability, with Zn element concentrations of 66.62 (%W) and 67.60 (%W), respectively. The coated cotton significantly outperforms uncoated cotton in terms of thermal stability, color fastness, UV blocking, tensile strength, and air permeability. As the results of this research established; the optimal dyeing protocol for cotton to obtain the desired textile properties.
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