Main Article Content
This research aimed to study some properties of three flour alternative sources from rice flour (RF), banana flour (BF), and job’s tears flour (JTF) when applied for cookies preparation. Physicochemical properties including water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), and pasting profiles of the flours, as well as of flour blends were determined. JTF presented the highest WAI (5.51 g/g) whereas RF indicated the highest WSI (2.73 g/g), and WF and RF exhibited the highest OAC (1.01, and 0.96 g/g, respectively). The flour blends from various ratios of RF, BF, and JTF as RF60 (60:30:10), RF50 (50:35:15), RF40 (40:40:20) were prepared and used to substitute wheat flour in cookies products. Appearance, spread ratio, color, hardness and sensory evaluation (9 points-hedonic test) of the produced cookies were evaluated and compared with the products using wheat flour (control). The products from RF60 exhibited comparable appearance and crispiness to control while their overall acceptability scores were a bit lower (5.79) than that of the control (7.20). However, considering gluten-free as a health concern, 80% of the panelists were willing to buy the cookies product from RF60 while only 36.67% had chosen the product from wheat flour. The results demonstrated the flour blend produced from rice, banana, and job’s tears has a high potential for application in gluten-free cookies products.
Y. Honda, N. Inoue, M. Kurita, and T. Okunishi, “Alpha-glutelin degradation and its hydrolysate by protease enhance the specific volume of gluten-free rice starch bread,” Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 102, Nov. 2021, Art. no. 103338.
P. Chokchaithanawiwat, V. Rungsardthong, B. Thumthanaruk, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, S. Boonraksa, and J. Wonngsa, “Product development of dried noodle from wheat flour and riceberry rice flour by extrusion,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, Art. no. 012043.
P. Sereewat, C. Suthipinittham, S. Sumathaluk, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, and V. Rungsardthong, “Cooking properties and sensory acceptability of spaghetti made from rice flour and defatted soy flour,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 60, pp. 1061–1067, Mar. 2015.
S. Srirajan, W. Mounmued, V. Rungsardthong, S. Vatanyoopaisarn, B. Thumthanaruk, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, and J. Wongsa, “Preparation of rice spaghetti with added defatted soy flour, modified starch and durian peel powdered by extrusion method,” Science, Engineering and Health Studies, vol. 15, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 2103003.
V. Rungsardthong, S. Wutthisilanon, T. Thongkum, T. Suthtinium, C. Puttanlek, and D. Uttapap, “Quality assessment of rice spaghetti made from jasmine rice flour and sweet potato flour supplemented with protein sources by direct extrusion,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 45, Mar. 2021, Art. no. e15450.
V. Rungsardthong, P. Namprakob, and S. Korkerd, “Physical and cooking properties of extruded rice spaghetti supplemented with mango peel fiber,” Journal of Current Science and Technology, vol. 11, pp. 230–239, May. 2021.
J. Wongsa, V. Rungsardthong, D. Uttapap, B. P. Lamsal, and C. Puttanlek, “Effect of extrusion conditions, monoglyceride and gum arabic addition on physical and cooking properties of extruded instant rice,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 23–30, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.14416/j.ijast.2017.02.006.
M. Kutschera and W. Krasaekoopt, “The use of job’s tear (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) flour to substitute cake flour in butter cake,” AU Journal of Technology, vol. 15, pp. 233–238, Apr. 2012.
M. Seguchi, A. Tabara, K. Iseki, M. Takeuchi, and C. Nakamura, “Development of gluten-free bread baked with banana (Musa spp.) flour,” Food Science and Technology Research, vol. 20, pp. 613–619, Jan. 2014.
Maximize Market Research, “Global cookies market: Industry analysis and forecast (2021– 2027) by ingredient, products, sales channel and region,” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www. maximizemarketresearch.com/market-report/ global-cookies-market/33308/
B. Olawoye, S. O. Gbadamosi, I. O. Otemuyiwa, and C. T. Akanbi, “Gluten-free cookies with low glycemic index and glycemic load: Optimization of the process variables via response surface methodology and artificial neural network,” Heliyon, vol. 6, Oct. 2020, Art. no. e05117.
T. F. da Silva and A. C. Conti-Silva, “Potentiality of gluten-free chocolate cookies with added inulin/oligofructose: Chemical, physical and sensory characterization,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 90, pp. 172–179, Apr. 2018.
C. M. Mancebo, P. Rodriguez, and M. Gómez, “Assessing rice flour-starch-protein mixtures to produce gluten-free sugar-snap cookies,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 67, pp. 127–132, Apr. 2016.
H. Yano, T. Koda, N. Fujita, and A. Nishioka, “Effect of amylose content in rice flour on batter rheology and bread baking quality,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 44, Mar. 2020, Art. no. e14462.
P. Detchewa, P. Prasajak, W. Sriwichai, and A. Moongngarm, “The effects of unripe banana flour on resistant starch content and quality characteristics of gluten-free rice cookies,” Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, vol. 16, pp. 67–78, Feb. 2021.
E. Agama-Acevedo, J. J. Islas-Hernandez, G. Pacheco-Vargas, P. Osorio-Diaz, and L. A. Bello- Perez, “Starch digestibility and glycemic index of cookies partially substituted with unripe banana flour,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 46, pp. 177–182, Apr. 2012.
M. Dechkunchorn and M. Thongngam, “Characterization of flour, starch and protein from white and black adlay cultivars,” VRU Research and Development Journal Science and Technology, vol. 11, pp. 31–40, Dec. 2016.
AOAC, “pH of flour potentiometric method. Procedure 943-02,” in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, W. Horwitz, Eds. Maryland: AOAC International, 2005, pp. 10–52.
Q. Yang, W. Zhang, Y. Luo, J. Li, J. Gao, P. Yang, X. Gao, and B. Feng, “Comparison of structural and physicochemical properties of starches from five coarse grains,” Food Chemistry, vol. 288, pp. 283–290, Aug. 2019.
M. E. E. Franklin, H. A. Pushpadass, B. Kumar, S. Kulkarni, M. Muthurayappa, R. Kandasamy, and P. Vellingiri, “Physicochemical, thermal, pasting and microstructural characterization of commercial Curcuma Angustifolia starch,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 67, pp. 27–36, Jun. 2017.
AACC, “Methods I0-50D and 10-52,” in Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Eds. Washington: AACC International, 2000, pp. 10–52.
B. Mert and I. Demirkesen, “Evaluation of highly unsaturated oleogels as shortening replacer in a short dough product,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 68, pp. 477–484, May 2016.
A. M. Hamdani, I. A. Wani, and N. A. Bhat, “Gluten-free cookies from rice-chickpea composite flour using exudate gums from acacia, apricot and karaya,” Food Bioscience, vol. 35, Jun. 2020, Art. no. 100541.
A. Devi, R. Sindhu, and B. S. Khatkar, “Morphological, pasting, and textural characterization of starches and their sub fractions of good and poor cookie making wheat varieties,” Food Bioscience, vol. 56, pp. 846–853, Dec. 2018.
H. Marta, Y. Cahyana, M. Djali, J. Arcot, and T. Tensiska, “A comparative study on the physicochemical and pasting properties of starch and flour from different banana (Musa spp.) cultivars grown in Indonesia,” International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 22, pp. 1562– 1575, Sep. 2019.
C. M. Han, J. H. Shin, J. B. Kwon, J. S. Kim, J. G. Won, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of morphological and physicochemical properties of a floury rice variety upon pre-harvest sprouting,” Foods, vol. 10, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.3390/foods10040746.
J. Ponjanta, N. O. Chomsri, and S. Meechoui, “Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand,” Functional Foods in Health and Disease, vol. 6, pp. 133–143, Mar. 2016.
P. Kaushal, V. Kumar, and H. K. Sharma, “Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, antinutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa) flour, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 48, pp. 59–68, Sep. 2012.
H. Wieser and R. Kieffer, “Correlations of the amount of gluten protein types to the technological properties of wheat flours determined on a micro-scale,” Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 34, pp. 19–27, Jul. 2001.
G. Kahraman, S. Harsa, M. Lucisano, and C. Cappa, “Physicochemical and rheological properties of rice-based gluten-free blends containing differently treated chickpea flours,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 98, pp. 276–282, Dec. 2018.
A. B. Capule and T. P. Trinidad, “Isolation and characterization of native and modified starch from adlay (Coix lacryma jobi-L.),” International Food Research Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1199– 1206, Oct. 2016.
K. Bashir, T. L. Swer, K. S. Prakash, and M. Aggarwal, “Physico-chemical and functional properties of gamma-irradiated whole wheat flour and starch,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 76, pp. 131–139, Mar. 2017.
E. Buckley, “Factors in hard winter wheat affecting water absorption tolerance,” M.S. thesis, Department of Grain Science, Kansas State University, 2013.
C. Sarangapani, R. Thirumdas, Y. Devi, A. Trimukhe, R. R. Deshmukh, and U. S. Annapure, “Effect of low-pressure plasma on physico– chemical and functional properties of parboiled rice flour,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 69, pp. 482–489, Jun. 2016.
K. O. Falade, M. Semon, O. S. Fadairo, A. O. Oladunjoye, and K. K. Orou, “Functional and physico-chemical properties of flours and starches of African rice cultivars,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 39, pp. 41–50, Aug. 2014.
J. O. Abu, K. Müller, K. G. Duodu, and A. Minnaar, “Gamma irradiation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flours and pastes: Effects on functional, thermal and molecular properties of isolated proteins,” Food Chemistry, vol. 95, pp. 138–147, Mar. 2006.
B. Pareyt, F. Talhaoui, G. Kerckhofs, K. Brijs, H. Goesaert, M. Wevers, and J. A. Delcour, “The role of sugar and fat in sugar-snap cookies: Structural and textural properties,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 90, pp. 400–408, Feb. 2009.
F. Ortolan and C. J. Steel, “Protein characteristics that affect the quality of vital wheat gluten to be used in baking: A review,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 16, pp. 369–381. Mar. 2017.
E. Hosseini, H. R. Mozafari, M. Hojjatoleslamy, and E. Rousta, “Influence of temperature, pH and salts on rheological properties of bitter almond gum,” Food Science and Technology, vol. 37, pp. 437–443, Sep. 2017.
S. Sasanam, V. Rungsardthong, B. Thumthanaruk, S. Wijuntamook, V. Rattananupap, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, and S. I. Mussatto, “Properties and volatile profile of process flavorings prepared from D-xylose with glycine, alanine or valine by direct extrusion method,” Food Bioscience, vol. 44, Sep. 2021, Art. no. 101371.
S. Sasanam, V. Rungsardthong, B. Thumthanaruk, S. Wijuntamook, V. Rattananupap, C. Puttanlek, D. Uttapap, and S. I. Mussatto, “Production of process flavorings from methionine, thiamine with d‐xylose or dextrose by direct extrusion: Physical properties and volatile,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 895–910, Feb. 2022.
R. Jan, D. C. Saxena, and S. Singh, “Physicochemical, textural, sensory and antioxidant characteristics of gluten–free cookies made from raw and germinated Chenopodium (Chenopodium album) flour,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, vol. 71, pp. 281–287, Sep. 2016.
P. Fustier, F. Castaigne, S. L. Turgeon, and C. G. Biliaderis, “Flour constituent interactions and their influence on dough rheology and quality of semi-sweet biscuits: A mixture design approach with reconstituted blends of gluten, water-solubles and starch fractions,” Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 48, pp. 144–158, Jul. 2008.