Main Article Content
The emergence of smart materials (stimulus-responsive materials) and cells enables 4D printing to enhance printed structures dynamically. By undergoing controlled morphological changes, engineered tissues may be made using these dynamic scaffolds. This article provides an overview of the use of stimuli-responsive biomaterials in tissue engineering and several 4D printing methodologies based on the functional change of printed objects. This review also goes through the existing and future prospects for using 4D printing in bone tissue engineering and the limitations in this field. Using a variety of stimuli-responsive biomaterials and 4D printing techniques, the form or function of these objects might evolve. These novel technologies have the potential to meet unmet medical needs, as shown by a recent review that summarised the use of 4D printing in bone tissue engineering. This current review is about the potential of this cutting-edge technology for tissue engineering in the biomedical area by delving further into the ongoing conversations regarding future issues and perspectives.
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