How Organic Fertilizers can be used as a Plant Nutrient Source in Hydroponics: A Review

Main Article Content

Elman Cantero Torres
Carolyn Grace Galo Somera


Sustainable crop production can be achieved by integrating the concept of modern agriculture with hydroponics for plant production and organic agriculture with the use of organic fertilizer as an alternative to the chemicalbased nutrient solution. Organic fertilizers contain a significant amount of essential nutrients needed by the plant for growth and development. Various approaches have been studied to test the viability of organic fertilizer as a nutrient source in hydroponics, such as replacing inorganic substrates with organic substrates, partial replacement, and full replacement of chemical-based nutrient solutions with organic fertilizers. Full replacement of nutrient solutions with organic fertilizers is deemed to be the most sustainable approach. However, unlike nutrient solution, which has an established optimum operation parameter, organic fertilizer as a nutrient solution in hydroponics faces several challenges, such as variability of the quality of organic fertilizers, nutrient management and optimization of the operating parameters. This review provides a general overview of the various approaches to utilize organic fertilizer as a plant nutrient source in hydroponics. In addition, this review provides a synthesis of hydroponics and its applicability to sustainable production, nutrient content of commonly used organic fertilizers and chemical-based nutrient solutions, a comparison of the plant growth and quality using organic fertilizer and chemical-based nutrient solutions and important operating parameters on utilizing organic fertilizers in hydroponics.

Article Details

How to Cite
Torres, E. C., & Galo Somera, C. G. (2023). How Organic Fertilizers can be used as a Plant Nutrient Source in Hydroponics: A Review. Applied Science and Engineering Progress, 16(4), 6359.
Review Articles


C. Somerville, M. Cohen, E. Pantanella, A. Stankus, and A. Lovatelli, “Small-scale aquaponic food production: Integrated fish and plant farming,” FAO, Rome, Italy, Rep. 589, 2014.

C. Maucieri, C. Nicoletto, E. van Os, D. Anseeuw, R. V. Havermaet, and R. Junge, “Hydroponic technologies,” in Aquaponics Food Production Systems: Combined Aquaculture and Hydroponic Production Technologies for the Future, S. Goddek, A. Joyce, B. Kotzen, and G. M. Burnell, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 77–110, doi: 10.1007/978-3-030- 15943-6_4.

L. Cifuentes‐Torres, L. G. Mendoza‐Espinosa, G. Correa‐Reyes, and L. W. Daesslé, “Hydroponics with wastewater: A review of trends and opportunities,” Water and Environment Journal, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 166–180, 2021.

Z. Farajollahzadeh, E. Hadavi, and A. Khandan- Mirkohi, “Introducing a potentially organic hydroponics system in production of pot gerbera flowers,” in International Symposium on New Technologies for Environment Control, Energy- Saving and Crop Production in Greenhouse and Plant 1037, 2013, pp. 1075–1082.

K. Kano, H. Kitazawa, K. Suzuki, A. Widiastuti, H. Odani, S. Zhou, Y. D. Chinta, Y. Eguchi, M. Shinohara, and T. Sato, “Effects of organic fertilizer on bok choy growth and quality in hydroponic cultures,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 3, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 3, doi: 10.3390/agronomy 11030491.

K. A. Williams and J. S. Nelson, “Challenges of using organic fertilizers in hydroponic production systems,” in XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014), 2014, pp. 365–370.

J. L. Garland, C. L. Mackowiak, R. F. Strayer, and B. W. Finger, “Integration of waste processing and biomass production systems as part of the KSC Breadboard project,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1821–1826, 1997.

G. L. Barbosa, F. D. A. Gadelha, N. Kublik, A. Proctor, L. Reichelm, E. Weissinger, G. M. Wohlleb, and R. U. Halden, “Comparison of land, water, and energy requirements of lettuce grown using hydroponic vs. conventional agricultural methods,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 6879–6891, 2015.

A. M. Malik, K. M. Mughal, M. A. Khan, and A. Masood, “Impact of hydroponics technology in Pakistan’s fruits and vegetable sector and global trade: A CGE analysis,” FWU Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 190–202, 2018.

S. Lee and J. Lee, “Beneficial bacteria and fungi in hydroponic systems: Types and characteristics of hydroponic food production methods,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 195, pp. 206–215, 2015.

R. S. Velazquez-Gonzalez, A. L. Garcia-Garcia, E. Ventura-Zapata, J. D. O. Barceinas-Sanchez, and J. C. Sosa-Savedra, “A review on hydroponics and the technologies associated for medium-and small-scale operations,” Agriculture, vol. 12, no. 5, 2022, Art. no. 646.

MarketsandMarkets, “Hydroponics Market Size, Share, Forecast 2022–2026,” 2022. [Online]. Available: Market-Reports/hydroponic-market-94055021. html

J. H. J. Spiertz, “Nitrogen, sustainable agriculture and food security: A review,” Sustainable agriculture, pp. 635–651, 2009.

J. B. Jones Jr, Hydroponics: A Practical Guide For The Soilless Grower. Florida: CRC Press, 2016.

S. W. Burrage, “Nutrient film technique in protected cultivation,” in Symposium on Soil and Soilless Media under Protected Cultivation in Mild Winter Climates 323, 1992, pp. 23–38.

A. Nursyahid, T. A. Setyawan, K. Sa’diyah, E. D. Wardihani, H. Helmy, and A. Hasan, “Analysis of Deep Water Culture (DWC) hydroponic nutrient solution level control systems,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2021, vol. 1108, no. 1, Art. no. 012032.

R. S. Ferrarezi and R. Testezlaf, “Performance of wick irrigation system using self-compensating troughs with substrates for lettuce production,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 147–161, 2016.

H. Singh and B. Dunn, “Building a vertical hydroponic tower,” Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma, USA, 2017.

L. I. Trejo-Téllez and F. C. Gómez-Merino, “Nutrient solutions for hydroponic systems,” in Hydroponics - A Standard Methodology for Plant Biological Researches. London, UK: IntechOpen, 2012, doi: 10.5772/37578.

D. R. Hoagland and D. I. Arnon, “The waterculture method for growing plants without soil,” Circular, vol. 347, no. 2, pp. 1–39, 1950.

A. A. Steiner, “A universal method for preparing nutrient solutions of a certain desired composition,” Plant and Soil, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 134–154, 1961.

M. A. A. Meselmani, Nutrient Solution for Hydroponics. London, UK: IntechOpen, 2022, doi: 10.5772/intechopen.101604.

J. Ryan, H. Ibrikci, A. Delgado, J. Torrent, R. Sommer, and A. Rashid, “Significance of phosphorus for agriculture and the environment in the West Asia and North Africa region,” Advances in Agronomy, vol. 114, pp. 91–153, 2012.

D. Cordell and S. White, “Peak phosphorus: Clarifying the key issues of a vigorous debate about long-term phosphorus security,” Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 2027–2049, 2011.

T. Cestonaro, R. T. de Vasconcelos Barros, A. T. de Matos, and M. A. Costa, “Full scale composting of food waste and tree pruning: How large is the variation on the compost nutrients over time?,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 754, 2021, Art. no. 142078.

U. Kafkafi, M. Raviv, and J. H. Lieth, “Functions of the root system,” in Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008, pp. 13–40.

A. A. Steiner, “The selective capacity of plants for ions and its importance for the composition and treatment of the nutrient solution,” in Symposium on Research on Recirculating Water Culture 98. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science, 1979, pp. 87–98.

R. Utkhede, “Increased growth and yield of hydroponically grown greenhouse tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici,” Biocontrol, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 393–400, 2006.

R. Kathpalia and S. C. Bhatla, “Plant Mineral Nutrition,” in Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism, S. C. Bhatla and M. A. Lal, Eds. Singapore: Springer, 2018, pp. 37–81. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-2023-1_2.

V. Jeyanny, A. A. Rasip, K. W. Rasidah, and Y. A. Zuhaidi, “Effects of macronutrient deficiencies on the growth and vigour of Khaya ivorensis seedlings,” Journal of Tropical Forest Science, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 73–80, 2009.

R. Hajiboland, “Effect of micronutrient deficiencies on plants stress responses,” in Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants, New York: Springer, 2012, pp. 283–329.

E. Lichtfouse, M. Navarrete, P. Debaeke, V. Souchère, C. Alberola, and J. Ménassieu, “Agronomy for sustainable agriculture: A review,” Sustainable Agriculture, vol. 29, pp. 1–6, 2009, doi: 10.1051/agro:2008054.

T. Phibunwatthanawong and N. Riddech, “Liquid organic fertilizer production for growing vegetables under hydroponic condition,” International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 369–380, 2019.

N. S. Gruda, “Increasing sustainability of growing media constituents and stand-alone substrates in soilless culture systems,” Agronomy, vol. 9, 2019, no. 6, Art. no. 298.

M. J. Maher, M. Prasad, and M. Raviv, Organic Soilless Media Components. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008, pp. 479–481.

G. Fascella, “Growing substrates alternative to peat for ornamental plants,” in Soilless Culture- Use of Substrates for the Production of Quality Horticultural Crops. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, pp. 47–67, 2015.

R. Wallach, “Physical characteristics of soilless media,” in Soilless Culture. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2019, pp. 33–112.

C. Maucieri, C. Nicoletto, E. van Os, D. Anseeouw, R. Van Havermaet, and R. Junge, “Hydroponic technologies,” in Aquaponics Food Production Systems. Cham: Springer, 2019, pp. 77–110.

M. Christoulaki, S. Gouma, T. Manios, and N. Tzortzakis, “Deployment of sawdust as substrate medium in hydroponically grown lettuce,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1304– 1315, 2014.

C. E. Brewer, V. J. Chuang, C. A. Masiello, H. Gonnermann, X. Gao, B. Dugan, L. E. Driver, P. Panzacchi, K. Zygourakis, and C. A. Davies, “New approaches to measuring biochar density and porosity,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 66, pp. 176–185, 2014.

L. Huang and M. Gu, “Effects of biochar on container substrate properties and growth of plants—A review,” Horticulturae, vol. 5, no. 1, 2019, Art. no. 14.

Y. S. Ok, S. M. Uchimiya, S. X. Chang, and N. Bolan, “Biochar substrate for hydroponic vegetable production,” in Biochar: Production, Characterization, and Applications. Florida: CRC Press, 2015, pp. 274–291.

O. Varela Milla, E. B. Rivera, W.-J. Huang, C. Chien, and Y.-M. Wang, “Agronomic properties and characterization of rice husk and wood biochars and their effect on the growth of water spinach in a field test,” Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 251–266, 2013.

T. Xie, K. R. Reddy, C. Wang, and K. Xu, “Effects of amendment of biochar produced from woody biomass on soil quality and crop yield,” in Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2014, pp. 170–180.

M. Abad, F. Fornes, C. Carrión, V. Noguera, P. Noguera, Á. Maquieira, and R. Puchades, “Physical properties of various coconut coir dusts compared to peat,” HortScience, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 2138–2144, 2005.

M. R. Evans, S. Konduru, and R. H. Stamps, “Source variation in physical and chemical properties of coconut coir dust,” HortScience, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 965–967, 1996.

S. Konduru, M. R. Evans, and R. H. Stamps, “Coconut husk and processing effects on chemical and physical properties of coconut coir dust,” HortScience, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 88–90, 1999.

J. M. Agnew and J. J. Leonard, “The physical properties of compost,” Compost Science and Utilization, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 238–264, 2003.

M. Jokova, O. Kostov, and O. V. Cleemput, “Cation exchange and reducing capacities as criteria for compost quality,” Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 187–197, 1997.

E.-S. G. Khater, “Some physical and chemical properties of compost,” International Journal of Waste Resources, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 2015.

M. H. Saharinen, A. H. Vuorinen, and M. Hostikka, “Effective cation exchange capacity of manure compost of varying maturity stages determined by the saturation‐displacement method,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 27, no. 15–17, pp. 2917–2923, 1996.

D. H. Boelter, “Important physical properties of peat materials,” in Third International Peat Congress, 1968, pp. 150–154.

P. Noguera, M. Abad, V. Noguera, R. Puchades, and A. Maquieira, “Coconut coir waste, a new and viable ecologically-friendly peat substitute,” in XXV International Horticultural Congress, Part 7: Quality of Horticultural Products, 1998, vol. 517, pp. 279–286.

V. A. Thorpe, “Determination of the volume weights, water-holding capacity, and air capacity of water-saturated peat materials,” Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1296–1299, 1968.

O. H. Dede and M. H. Oztekin, “Relationship between optical microscopic structure and physical characterization of organic wastes originated peat substitutes,” Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1173–1184, 2018.

K. M. Goh and R. J. Haynes, “Evaluation of potting media for commercial nursery production of container-grown plants: 1. Physical and chemical characteristics of soil and soilless media and their constituents,” New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 363–370, 1977.

E. Marinou, A. Chrysargyris, and N. G. Tzortzakis, “Use of sawdust, coco soil and pumice in hydroponically grown strawberry,” Plant, Soil and Environment, vol. 59, pp. 452–459, 2013.

O. Grunert, E. Hernandez-Sanabria, R. Vilchez- Vargas, R. Jauregui, D. H. Pieper, M. Perneel, M.-C. V. Labeke, D. Reheul, and N. Boon, “Mineral and organic growing media have distinct community structure, stability and functionality in soilless culture systems,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, 2016, Art. no. 18837.

T. V. Gerrewey, M. Vandecruys, N. Ameloot, M. Perneel, M.-C. V. Labeke, N. Boon, and D. Geelen, “Microbe-plant growing media interactions modulate the effectiveness of bacterial amendments on lettuce performance inside a plant factory with artificial lighting,” Agronomy, vol. 10, no. 10, 2020, Art. no. 1456.

N. Q. Arancon, J. D. Owens, and C. Converse, “The effects of vermicompost tea on the growth and yield of lettuce and tomato in a non-circulating hydroponics system,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 2447–2458, 2019.

Y. Sunaryo, D. Purnomo, M. T. Darini, and V. R. Cahyani, “Effects of goat manure liquid fertilizer combined with AB-MIX on foliage vegetables growth in hydroponic,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, vol. 129, no. 1, Art. no. 012003.

J. L. Garland, C. L. Mackowiak, and J. C. Sager, “Hydroponic crop production using recycled nutrients from inedible crop residues,” SAE Transactions, vol. 102, pp. 1103–1110, 1993.

C. L. Mackowiak, J. L. Garland, and J. C. Sager, “Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 440, pp. 19–24, 1996.

M. Grover, S. Z. Ali, V. Sandhya, A. Rasul, and B. Venkateswarlu, “Role of microorganisms in adaptation of agriculture crops to abiotic stresses,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1231–1240, 2011.

A. S. S. Thomas, W. Pongprayoon, K. Cheenkachorn, and M. Sriariyanun, “Plant-microbe interactionsinsights and views for applications in sustainable agriculture,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 15, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.14416/ j.asep.2021.07.008. [66] J. M. Ebeling and M. B. Timmons, “Recirculating aquaculture systems,” Aquaculture Production Systems, vol. 1, pp. 245–277, 2012.

D. Geisseler, R. Smith, M. Cahn, and J. Muramoto, “Nitrogen mineralization from organic fertilizers and composts: Literature survey and model fitting,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1325–1338, 2021.

C. Muratore, L. Espen, and B. Prinsi, “Nitrogen uptake in plants: The plasma membrane root transport systems from a physiological and proteomic perspective,” Plants, vol. 10, no. 4, 2021, Art. no. 681.

A. J. Miller and M. D. Cramer, “Root nitrogen acquisition and assimilation,” Plant and Soil, vol. 274, no. 1, pp. 1–36, 2005.

M. Eck, O. Körner, and M. H. Jijakli, “Nutrient cycling in aquaponics systems,” in Aquaponics Food Production Systems. Cham: Springer, 2019, pp. 231–246.

S. Saijai, A. Ando, R. Inukai, M. Shinohara, and J. Ogawa, “Analysis of microbial community and nitrogen transition with enriched nitrifying soil microbes for organic hydroponics,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 2247–2254, 2016.

M. Shinohara, C. Aoyama, K. Fujiwara, A. Watanabe, H. Ohmori, Y. Uehara, and M. Takano, “Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into nitrate to allow the use of organic fertilizer in hydroponics,” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 190–203, 2011.

S. Wongkiew, T. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, P. Prombutara, W. Jinsart, and S. K. Khanal, “Bioponic system for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from chicken manure: Evaluation of manure loading and microbial communities,” Waste Management, vol. 125, pp. 67–76, 2021.

K. Elbanna, R. M. El-Shahawy, and K. M. Atalla, “A new simple method for the enumeration of nitrifying bacteria in different environments,” Plant, Soil and Environment, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 2012.

C. Kawamura-Aoyama, K. Fujiwara, M. Shinohara, and M. Takano, “Study on the hydroponic culture of lettuce with microbially degraded solid food waste as a nitrate source,” Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2014.

K. Kano, H. Kitazawa, K. Suzuki, A. Widiastuti, H. Odani, S. Zhou, Y. D. Chinta, Y. Eguchi, M. Shinohara, and T. Sato, “Effects of organic fertilizer on bok choy growth and quality in hydroponic cultures,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 3, 2021, Art. no. 491.

Y. Xie, M. Spiller, and S. E. Vlaeminck, “A bioreactor and nutrient balancing approach for the conversion of solid organic fertilizers to liquid nitrate-rich fertilizers: Mineralization and nitrification performance complemented with economic aspects,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 806, 2022, Art. no. 150415.

D.-J. Kim, D.-I. Lee, and J. Keller, “Effect of temperature and free ammonia on nitrification and nitrite accumulation in landfill leachate and analysis of its nitrifying bacterial community by FISH,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 459–468, 2006.

B. W. Finger and R. F. Strayer, “Development of an intermediate-scale aerobic bioreactor to regenerate nutrients from inedible crop residues,” SAE Transactions, pp. 1365–1373, 1994, Art. no. 941501.

S. Wongkiew, C. Polprasert, T. Koottatep, T. Limpiyakorn, K. C. Surendra, and S. K. Khanal, “Chicken manure-based bioponics: Effects of acetic acid supplementation on nitrogen and phosphorus recoveries and microbial communities,” Waste Management, vol. 137, pp. 264–274, 2022.

D. Kechasov, M. J. Verheul, M. Paponov, A. Panosyan, and I. A. Paponov, “Organic waste-based fertilizer in hydroponics increases tomato fruit size but reduces fruit quality,” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 12, 2021, Art. no. 1047.

R. L. Nelson, “Aquaponic equipment: The biofilter,” Aquaponics Journal, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 22–23, 2008.

W. Lennard and S. Goddek, “Aquaponics: The basics,” in Aquaponics Food Production Systems, Cham: Springer, 2019, pp. 113–143.

W. A. Dick and E. G. Gregorich, “Developing and maintaining soil organic matter levels,” Managing Soil Quality: Challenges in Modern Agriculture, vol. 103, 2004, Art. no. 120.

S. L. Lim, T. Y. Wu, P. N. Lim, and K. P. Y. Shak, “The use of vermicompost in organic farming: Overview, effects on soil and economics,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1143–1156, 2015.

S. Bhunia, A. Bhowmik, R. Mallick, and J. Mukherjee, “Agronomic efficiency of animalderived organic fertilizers and their effects on biology and fertility of soil: A review,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 5, 2021, Art. no. 823.

H. Shaji, V. Chandran, and L. Mathew, “Organic fertilizers as a route to controlled release of nutrients,” in Controlled Release Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2021, pp. 231–245.

P. Tikasz, S. MacPherson, V. Adamchuk, and M. Lefsrud, “Aerated chicken, cow, and turkey manure extracts differentially affect lettuce and kale yield in hydroponics,” International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 241–252, 2019.

S. Li, N. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Q. Shen, “Antagonist Bacillus subtilis HJ5 controls Verticillium wilt of cotton by root colonization and biofilm formation,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 295–303, 2013.

A. H. Gorenjak, U. R. Koležnik, and A. Cencič, “Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: Intake assessment,” Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 2012.

G. E. Brust, “Management strategies for organic vegetable fertility,” in Safety and Practice for Organic Food. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2019, pp. 193–212.

S. Bansal and K. K. Kapoor, “Vermicomposting of crop residues and cattle dung with Eisenia foetida,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 95–98, 2000.

J. Frederickson, K. R. Butt, R. M. Morris, and C. Daniel, “Combining vermiculture with traditional green waste composting systems,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 29, no. 3–4, pp. 725–730, 1997.

S. Pattnaik and M. V. Reddy, “Nutrient status of vermicompost of urban green waste processed by three earthworm species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus,” Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 41, no. 20, 2010, Art. no. 41053692.

J. Domínguez, M. Aira, A. R. Kolbe, M. Gómez- Brandón, and M. Pérez-Losada, “Changes in the composition and function of bacterial communities during vermicomposting may explain beneficial properties of vermicompost,” Scientific Reports, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2019.

J. Pathma and N. Sakthivel, “Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential,” SpringerPlus, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2012.

C. A. Edwards, N. Q. Arancon, M. Vasko-Bennett, A. Askar, and G. Keeney, “Effect of aqueous extracts from vermicomposts on attacks by cucumber beetles (Acalymna vittatum)(Fabr.) on cucumbers and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)(L.) on tomatoes,” Pedobiologia, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2010.

E. Ingham, The Compost Tea Brewing Manual. Oregon: Soil Foodweb Incorporated Corvallis, 2005.

E. Torres, E. Sicat, M. Cinense, and C. G. Somera, “Development of a compost tea brewer machine,” IJETT, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 140–148, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V69I11P218.

S. T. Raza, B. Zhu, J. L. Tang, Z. Ali, R. Anjum, H. Bah, H. Iqbal, X. Ren, and R. Ahmad, “Nutrients recovery during vermicomposting of cow dung, pig manure, and biochar for agricultural sustainability with gases emissions,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 24, 2020, Art. no. 8956.

E. V. Churilova and D. J. Midmore, “Vermiliquer (Vermicompost leachate) as a complete liquid fertilizer for hydroponically-grown pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) in the tropics,” Horticulturae, vol. 5, no. 1, 2019, Art. no. 26.

B. Bergfeldt, M. Tomasi Morgano, H. Leibold, F. Richter, and D. Stapf, “Recovery of phosphorus and other nutrients during pyrolysis of chicken manure,” Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 12, 2018, Art. no. 187.

O. P. Lind, M. Hultberg, K.-J. Bergstrand, H. Larsson-Jönsson, S. Caspersen, and H. Asp, “Biogas digestate in vegetable hydroponic production: pH dynamics and pH management by controlled nitrification,” Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 123–133, 2021.

A. O. Adekiya, S. O. Dahunsi, J. F. Ayeni, C. Aremu, C. M. Aboyeji, F. Okunlola, and A. E. Oyelami, “Organic and in-organic fertilizers effects on the performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) grown on soilless medium,” Scientific Reports, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2022.

N. Yoder and J. G. Davis, “Organic fertilizer comparison on growth and nutrient content of three kale cultivars,” HortTechnology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2020.

M. Ezziddine, H. Liltved, and R. Seljåsen, “Hydroponic lettuce cultivation using organic nutrient solution from aerobic digested aquacultural sludge,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 8, 2021, Art. no. 1484.

A. M. Yatoo, M. Ali, Z. A. Baba, and B. Hassan, “Sustainable management of diseases and pests in crops by vermicompost and vermicompost tea. A review,” Agronomy for Sustainable Development, vol. 41, no. 1, 2021, Art. no. 7.

S. Gangwar, V. P. Singh, D. K. Tripathi, D. K. Chauhan, S. M. Prasad, and J. N. Maurya, “Plant responses to metal stress: The emerging role of plant growth hormones in toxicity alleviation,” in Emerging Technologies and Management of Crop Stress Tolerance. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2014, pp. 215–248.

M. Miransari, Environmental Stresses in Soybean Production: Soybean Production Volume 2, vol. 2. Massachusetts: Academic Press, 2016.

N. Q. Arancon, A. Pant, T. Radovich, N. V. Hue, J. K. Potter, and C. E. Converse, “Seed germination and seedling growth of tomato and lettuce as affected by vermicompost water extracts (teas),” HortScience, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1722–1728, 2012.

C. Márquez-Quiroz, S. T. López-Espinosa, E. Sánchez-Chávez, M. L. García-Bañuelos, D. la Cruz-Lázaro, and J. L. Reyes-Carrillo, “Effect of vermicompost tea on yield and nitrate reductase enzyme activity in saladette tomato,” Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 223–231, 2014.

G. Santiago-López, P. Preciado-Rangel, E. Sánchez-Chavez, J. R. Esparza-Rivera, M. Fortis-Hernández, and A. Moreno-Reséndez, “Organic nutrient solutions in production and antioxidant capacity of cucumber fruits,” Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, pp. 518–521, 2016, doi: 10.9755/ejfa.2016- 01-083.

B. N. Ames, M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen, “Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 90, no. 17, pp. 7915–7922, 1993.

S. Y. Wang, “Effect of pre-harvest conditions on antioxidant capacity in fruits,” in IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality, 2006, pp. 299–306, doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.712.33.

B. Arifin, A. Bono, and J. Janaun, “The transformation of chicken manure into mineralized organic fertilizer,” Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2006.

B. Baştabak and G. Koçar, “A review of the biogas digestate in agricultural framework,” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1318–1327, 2020.

H. A. Mupambwa, A. S. Namwoonde, G. M. Liswaniso, M. K. Hausiku, and B. Ravindran, “Biogas digestates are not an effective nutrient solution for hydroponic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) production under a deep water culture system,” Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 10, 2019, Art. no. e02736.

H. Ezz, M. G. Ibrahim, M. Fujii, and M. Nasr, “Dual biogas and biochar production from rice straw biomass: A techno-economic and sustainable development approach,” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s13399-021-01879-y. [119] S. Solomon, “Sugarcane by-products based industries in India,” Sugar Tech, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 408–416, 2011.

I. Ahuja, E. Dauksas, J. F. Remme, R. Richardsen, and A.-K. Løes, “Fish and fish waste-based fertilizers in organic farming–with status in Norway: A review,” Waste Management, vol. 115, pp. 95–112, 2020.

Z. F. Ahmed, A. K. Alnuaimi, A. Askri, and N. Tzortzakis, “Evaluation of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production under hydroponic system: Nutrient solution derived from fish waste vs. Inorganic nutrient solution,” Horticulturae, vol. 7, no. 9, 2021, Art. no. 292.

Z. Zhai, D. L. Ehret, T. Forge, T. Helmer, W. Lin, M. Dorais, and A. P. Papadopoulos, “Organic fertilizers for greenhouse tomatoes: Productivity and substrate microbiology,” HortScience, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 800–809, 2009.

E. Goto, A. J. Both, L. D. Albright, R. W. Langhans, and A. R. Leed, “Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on lettuce growth in floating hydroponics,” in International Symposium on Plant Production in Closed Ecosystems, 1996, vol. 440, pp. 205–210.

M. B. Jackson, “Aeration in the nutrient film technique of glasshouse crop production and the importance of oxygen, ethylene and carbon dioxide,” in Symposium on Research on Recirculating Water Culture, 1979, vol. 98, pp. 61–78.

W. Bae, S. Baek, J. Chung, and Y. Lee, “Optimal operational factors for nitrite accumulation in batch reactors,” Biodegradation, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 359–366, 2001.

M. A. F. Falah, T. Wajima, D. Yasutake, Y. Sago, and M. Kitano, “Responses of root uptake to high temperature of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in soil-less culture,” Journal of Agricultural Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 543–558, 2010.

H. M. Murtadha, J. W. Maranville, R. B. Clark, and M. D. Clegg, “Effects of temperature and relative humidity on growth and calcium uptake, translocation, and accumulation in sorghum,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 535–545, 1989.

F. Fdz-Polanco, S. Villaverde, and P. A. Garcia, “Temperature effect on nitrifying bacteria activity in biofilters: activation and free ammonia inhibition,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 11, 1994, Art. no. 121.

M. Yousaf, S. Bashir, H. Raza, A. NoorShah, J. Iqbal, M. Arif, M. Ad. Bukhari, S. Muhammad, S. Hashim, J. Alkahtani, M. S. Alwahibi, and C. Hu, “Role of nitrogen and magnesium for growth, yield and nutritional quality of radish,” Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 3021–3030, 2021.

A. Sradnick and C. Feller, “A typological concept to predict the nitrogen release from organic fertilizers in farming systems,” Agronomy, vol. 10, no. 9, 2020, Art. no. 1448.

C.-W. Liu, Y. Sung, B.-C. Chen, and H.-Y. Lai, “Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.),” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 4427–4440, 2014.