Main Article Content
In this study, a fiber-based refractometer (FOR) applied for biogas sensing has been investigated. Two types of fiber, single-mode (SMF) and multimode fiber (MMF) have been proposed as sensing elements. The research aims to investigate the spot and power attenuation of both fiber types in 4 main conditions; fiber cladding, de-cladding, compound coating, and biogas feeding. The experimental results showed that the spot diameters from both fiber types are constantly at 4 and 26 mm in any conditions. This causes the difference in core diameters and also the dispersion of light characteristics within the fibers. Moreover, when the sensing element has been modified by the following conditions, the results indicated that the output intensity has proportionally changed, according to the fiber modification and the concentration of biogas absorbed into the sensing element. Besides, the power attenuation from MMF is larger than SMF. This causes the length of fiber de-cladding and dispersion of light within the MMF can easily be induced by biogas feeding. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MMF is more suitable than SMF for employment as a sensing element of the fiber refractometer.
W. Wang, K. Porninta, P. Aggarangsi, N. Leksawasdi, L. Li, X. Chen, X. Zhuang, Z. Yuan, and W. Qi, “Bioenergy development in Thailand based on the potential estimation from crop residues and livestock manures,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 144, pp. 1–14, 2021.
P. Soni, “Agricultural mechanization in Thailand: Current status and future outlook,” Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 58–66, 2016.
P. Warr and W. Suphannachart, “Agricultural productivity growth and poverty reduction: Evidence from Thailand,” Journal Agricultural Economics, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 525–546, 2020.
Ministry of Energy, “Research and development in the field of energy conservation and renewable energy in Thailand”, 2020.
Report of the Ministry of Energy, “Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP2018)”, 2018.
M. J. B. Kabeyi and O. A. Olanrewaju, “Biogas production and applications in the sustainable energy transition,” Journal of Energy, vol. 2022, pp. 1–43, 2022.
A. J. Calderón and I. González, “Biogas analyzer based on open source hardware: Design and prototype implementation,” Sensors and Transducers, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 31–36, 2018.
P. Thaisongkroh, P. Samartkit, and S. Pullteap, “Applications of optical fiber sensor technology for prioritized industry in Thailand development strategy: A review,” Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 11205, pp. 1120511–1120516, 2019.
Z. J. Ke, D. L. Tang, X. Lai, Z. Y. Dai, and Q. Zhang, “Optical fiber evanescent-wave sensing technology of hydrogen sulfide gas concentration in oil and gas field,” Optik, vol. 157, pp. 1094–1100, 2018.
B. Renganathan, S. K. Rao, A. R. Ganesan, and A. Deepak, “High proficient sensing response in clad modified ceria doped tin oxide fiber optic toxic gas sensor application,” Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 332, Art. no. 11314, 2021.
H. Zhou, J. Q. Wen, X, Z, Zheng, W. Wang, D. Q. Feng, Q, Wang, and F. Jai, “Study on fiber-optic hydrogen sulfide gas sensor,” Physics Procedia, vol. 56, pp. 1102–1106, 2014.
J. A. F. Bravo, M. A. Illaramendi, J. Zubia, and J. Villatoro, “Optical fiber interferometer for temperature-independent refractive index measuring over a broad range,” Optics and Laser Technology, vol. 139, pp. 106977-1–106977-6, 2021.
A. Ozcariz, C. R. Zamarrino, and F. J. Arregui, “A comprehensive review: Material for the fabrication of optical fiber refractometers based on lossy mode resonance,” Sensors, vol. 20, pp. 1–23, 2020.
M. Yasin, Fiber Optic Sensor. London, UK: IntechOpen, pp. 27–52, 2012.
R. Wang, P. Huang, and X. Qiao, “Gas refractometer based on a side-open fiber optic fabry-perot interferometer,” Applied Optic, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 2017.
X. Fan, S. Deng, Z. Wei, F. Wang, C. Tan, and H. Meng, “Ammonia gas sensor based on graphene oxide-coated mach-zehnder interferometer with hybrid fiber structure,” Sensor, vol. 21, pp. 1–13, 2021.
K. J. Gàsvik, Optical Metrology. London, UK: Wiley & Sons, 2002.
M. Kurohiji, S. Ichiriyama, N. Yamasaku, S. Okazaki, N. Kasai, Y. Maru, and T. Mizutani, “A robust fiber bragg grating hydrogen gas sensor using platinum-supported silica catalyst film,” Journal of Sensors, vol. 2018, pp. 1–9, 2018.
R. Tabassum and R. Kant, “Recent trends in surface plasmon resonance-based fiber-optic gas sensors utilizing metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials as functional entities,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 310, pp. 1–26, 2020.
A. Urrutia, I. D. Villar, P. Zubiate, and C. R. Zamarreño, “A comprehensive review of optical fiber refractometers: Toward a standard comparative criterion,” Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1–32, 2019.
P. Thaisongkroh, S. Pullteap, and H. C. Seat, “Low-pressure measurement using an extrinsic fiber-based fabry-perot interferometer for industrial applications,” Engineering Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 317–325, 2021.
A. A. Azzawi, Fiber Optic: Principles and Advanced Practices, 2nd Ed. Florida: CRC Press, 2020.
C. Zhou, W. B. Lee, Y. G. Lee, S. S. Lee, S. H. Son, and B. S. Seol, “Fiber-optic refractometer based on a reflective aspheric prism rendering adjustable sensitivity,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1381–1387, 2019.
M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Skripachev, G. E. Snopatin, L. A. Ketkova, and V. G. Plotnichenko, “The problems of optical loss reduction in arsenic sulfide glass IR fibers,” Optical Materials, vol. 102, pp. 1–7, 2020.
W. Zhou, Y. Zhou, and J. Albert, “A true fiberoptic refractometer,” Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2017.
A. K. Sharma, J. Gupta, and R. Basu, “Simulation and performance evaluation of fiber optic sensor for detection of hepatic malignancies in human liver tissues,” Optics and Laser Technology, vol. 98, pp. 291–297, 2018.
S. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Xu, S. Sun, and X. Sun, “Refractive Index sensor based on double sidepolished U-Shaped plastic optical fiber,” Sensors 2020, vol. 20, pp. 1–13, 2020.
M. A. Butt, S. N. Khonina, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Silicon on silicon dioxide slot waveguide evanescent field gas absorption sensor,” Journal of Modern Optics, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 174–178, 2018.
A. K. Sharma, J. Gupta, and I. Sharma, “Fiberoptic evanescent wave absorption-based sensors: A detailed review of advancements in the last decade (2007–18),” Optik (Stuttgart), vol. 183, pp. 1008–1025, 2019.
D. D. Voa, R. Moradi, M. B. Gerdroodbary, and D. Ganji, “Measurement of low-pressure Knudsen force with deflection approximation for gas detection,” Results in Physics, vol. 13, pp. 1–6, 2019.
S. K. Gahlaut, K. Yadav, C. Sharan, and J. Singh, “Quick and selective dual mode detection of h2s gas by mobile app employing silver nanorods array,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 89, pp. 13582– 13588, 2017.
P. Zaca-Morán, J. P. Padilla-Martínez, J. M. Pérez-Corte, J. A. Dávila-Pintle, J. G. Ortega-Mendoza, and N. Morales, “Etched optical fiber for measuring concentration and refractive index of sucrose solutions by evanescent waves,” Laser Physics, vol. 28, pp. 1–5, 2018.
Y. Cardona-Maya, A. B. Socorro, I. D. Villar, J. L. Cruz, J. M. Corres, and J. F. Botero-Cadavid, “Label-free wavelength and phase-detection based SMS fiber immune sensors optimized with cladding etching,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 265, pp. 10–19, 2018.
L. F. Rickelt, L. D. M. Ottosen, and M. Kühl, “Etching of multimode optical glass fibers: A new method for shaping the measuring tip and immobilization of indicator dyes in recessed fiber-optic microprobes,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 211, pp. 462–468, 2015.
R. X. Tan, M. Ibsen, and S. C. Tjin, “Optical fiber refractometer based metal ion sensors,” Chemosensors, vol. 7, no. 63, pp. 1–19, 2019.