Main Article Content
The demand for livestock products increases continuously and cannot be avoided; on the other hand, the total livestock production is still lower than the demand. The problem has recently become more complex, as the demand for livestock production must produce not only enough quantity but also high quality and healthy products for the consumers, create welfare for the livestock, be safe and friendly for the environment, and be highly sustainable for our next generation. All of these demands must be strongly related to the efficiency of feed utilization by the livestock, as feed is the major input for the livestock to maintain its life and production processes. Hence, precision feeding management must become an excellent approach to overcome all of the problems. Precision feeding is an attempt to maximize feed utilization by livestock by supplying the most appropriate nutrients to the livestock. Thus, in this approach, livestock is expected to consume less feed, digests, and metabolizes the feed very much effectively, and then excretes less waste. Those higher efficiencies of feed utilization by livestock must consequently give some advantages, including 1) minimize the amount of feed offered and reduce refusal feed by the livestock; hence the available feeds can be used to rear more the number of livestock to multiply livestock products, 2) increase livestock productivity with less feed cost, hence increase profit for the farmer, 3) reduce livestock waste including feces, urine and also ammonia and methane gas, hence make a better of environment, and finally, all of those advantages must lead more sustainable livestock production systems.
Amata, I. A. 2014. The use of non-conventional feed resources (NCFR) for livestock feeding in the tropics: A review. Journal of Global Biosciences. 3 (2): 604-613.
Andretta, I., Hauschild, L., Kipper, M., Pires, P. G. S., and Pomar, C. 2018. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production. Animal. 12(9):1990-1998. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731117003159
Anonymous. 2020. Moving towards sustainability: The Livestock Sector and the World Bank. The World Bank Group. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/agriculture/brief/moving-towards-sustainability-the-livestock-sector-and-the-world-bank.
Babinszky, L., and Halas, V. 2009. Innovative swine nutrition: Some present and potential applications of latest scientific findings for safe pork production. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 8. (Suppl. 3): 7-20. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s3.7
Banhazi, T. M., Babinszky, L., Halas, V., and Tscharke, M. 2012. Precision livestock farming: Precision feeding technologies and sustainable livestock production. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 5(4): 54-61. https://doi.org/10.3965/j.ijabe.20120504.006
Berckmans, D. 2014. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems. OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique. 33(1):189-196. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.33.1.2273
Broom, D. M., Galindo, F. A., and Murgueitio, E. 2013. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals. In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 25: 280(1771): 20132025 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2025
Broom, D. M. 2011. A History of Animal Welfare Science. In Acta Biotheoretica. 59(2):121-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10441-011-9123-3
Cerisuelo, A., and Calvet, S. 2020. Feeding in monogastric animals: A key element to reduce its environmental impact. ITEA Informacion Tecnica Economica Agraria. 116(5): 483-506. https://doi.org/10.12706/itea.2020.039
Chenost, M. 1990. Non-conventional feed resources and fibrous agricultural residues. Strategies for expanded utilization. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 30 (3-4): 192. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(90)90024-3
Clark, M. 2012. Deforestation in Madagascar: Consequences of Population Growth and Unsustainable Agricultural Processes. 3 (1): 61-71. Global Majority E-Journal.
Cook, K., James, M., Lee, R., Cook, K., James, M., and Lee, R. 2015. Animal Welfare Act 2006. In Core Statutes on Criminal Law. 2-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-54431-5_3
Da Cunha, D. de N. F. V., Pereira, J. C., de Campos, O. F., Gomes, S. T., Braga, J. L., and Martuscello, J. A. 2010. Simulation of Holstein and Jersey profitability by varying milk price payment system. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 39 (4) https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-35982010000400028
Das, P., Sa, J.-H., Kim, D. S., Kim, K. H., and Jeon, E. C. 2007. A Review on the emission sources of ammonia and the factors affecting its loss. Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment. 23(E2): 47–56.
Dawkins, M. S. 2006. A user’s guide to animal welfare science. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 21(2):77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.10.017.
Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S., and Courbois, C. 1999. Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 28. IFPRI FAO and ILRI Publication.
Devendra, C., and Sevilla, C. C. 2002. Availability and use of feed resources in crop-animal systems in Asia. Agricultural Systems. 71 (1-2): 59-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00036-1
di Virgilio, A., Morales, J. M., Lambertucci, S. A., Shepard, E. L. C., and Wilson, R. P. 2018. Multi-dimensional Precision Livestock Farming: A potential toolbox for sustainable rangeland management. Peer J. 6:e4867. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4867
Dopelt, K., Radon, P., and Davidovitch, N. 2019. Environmental effects of the livestock industry: the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among students in Israel. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(8), 1359.
Edwards, J. P., Spaans, O. K., Neal, M., and Macdonald, K. A. 2019. Short communication: Milk fat payment affects the relative profitability of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows at optimal comparative stocking rate. Journal of Dairy Science. 102(10):9463-9467. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-16152
Eshel, G., Shepon, A., Makov, T., and Milo, R. 2014. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (33) 11996-12001. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1402183111
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress towards sustainable forest management. In FAO Forestry Paper 147.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 2011. Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030. In Animal Production and Health Working Paper. No. 2.
Goodland, R., Anhang, J., and others. 2009. Livestock and climate change: what if the key actors in climate change are... cows, pigs, and chickens? World Watch, November/December.
Halas, V., and Dukhta, G. 2020. Growth models and their application in precision feeding of monogastric farm animals. In Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica. 23: 258-264. https://doi.org/10.15414/afz.2020.23.mi-fpap.258-264
Iqubal, M. A. 2013. Livestock husbandry and environmental problem. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 3(5): 1–4.
Jarvis, A., Touval, J. L., Schmitz, M. C., Sotomayor, L., and Hyman, G. G. 2010. Assessment of threats to ecosystems in South America. Journal for Nature Conservation. 18(3): 180-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2009.08.003
Jayakumar, P., and Loganathan, S. 2015. A Study on Consumer Preference of Milk at Edamalaippattipudur in Tiruchirappalli District. Intercontinental Journal of Marketing Research Review. 3(7): 33–39.
Lopez, G., and Leeson, S. 2005. Utilization of metabolizable energy by young broilers and birds of intermediate growth rate. Poultry Science. 84(7):1069-76. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.7.1069
Lovarelli, D., Bacenetti, J., and Guarino, M. 2020. A review on dairy cattle farming: Is precision livestock farming the compromise for an environmental, economic and social sustainable production?. Journal of Cleaner Production. 262(2):121409https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121409
Macedo, M. N., DeFries, R. S., Morton, D. C., Stickler, C. M., Galford, G. L., and Shimabukuro, Y. E. 2012. Decoupling of deforestation and soy production in the southern Amazon during the late 2000s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (4) 1341-1346. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1111374109
Makkar, H. P. S., Tran, G., Heuzé, V., and Ankers, P. 2014. State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed. In Animal Feed Science and Technology. 197 (Nov.): 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.07.008
Meek, T. 2019. How does agriculture cause deforestation, and how can we prevent it?. Environment. Sentient Media. https://sentientmedia.org/how-does-agriculture-cause-deforestation/
Molina-Flores, B., Manzano-Baena, P., and Coulibaly, M. D. 2020. The role of livestock in food security, poverty reduction and wealth creation in West Africa. FAO.
Ncobela, C. N., and Chimonyo, M. 2015. Potential of using non-conventional animal protein sources for sustainable intensification of scavenging village chickens: A review. In Animal Feed Science and Technology. 208 (Oct.): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.07.005
Noordhuizen, J. P. T. M., and Metz, J. H. M. 2005. Quality control on dairy farms with emphasis on public health, food safety, animal health and welfare. Livestock Production Science. 94 (1-2): 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.031
Piccioli-Cappelli, F., Calegari, F., Calamari, L., Bani, P., and Minuti, A. 2019. Application of a NIR device for precision feeding in dairy farms: effect on metabolic conditions and milk production. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 18(1): 754-765 https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2019.1570829
Pomar, C., van Milgen, J., and Remus, A. 2019. 18: Precision livestock feeding, principle and practice. In Poultry and pig nutrition. p. 397 - 418. https://doi.org/10.3920/978-90-8686-884-1_18
Pomar, Cândido, Hauschild, L., Zhang, G.-H., Pomar, J., and Lovatto, P. A. 2009. Applying precision feeding techniques in growing-finishing pig operations. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 38: 226-237. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-35982009001300023
Pomar, C., and Remus, A. 2019. Precision pig feeding: a breakthrough toward sustainability. Animal Frontiers. 9(2): 52–59. https://doi.org/10.1093/af/vfz006
Rosegrant, M. W., Fernandez, M., Sinha, A., Alder, J., Ahammad, H., de Fraiture, Charlotte, Eickhour, B., Fonseca, J., Huang, J., Koyama, O., Omezzine, A. M., Pingali, P., Ramirez, R., Ringler, C., Robinson, S., Thornton, P., van Vuuren, D., Yana-Shapiro, H. 2009. Looking into the future for agriculture and AKST. In: McIntyre, B. D.; Herren, H. R.; Wakhungu, J., Watson, R. T. (eds.). International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD): Agriculture at a Crossroads, global report. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. p.307-376.
Salami, S. A., Luciano, G., O’Grady, M. N., Biondi, L., Newbold, C. J., Kerry, J. P., and Priolo, A. 2019. Sustainability of feeding plant by-products: A review of the implications for ruminant meat production. In Animal Feed Science and Technology. 251(May): 37-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.02.006
Thomson, K. 2003. World agriculture: towards 2015/2030: an FAO perspective. Land Use Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0264-8377(03)00047-4
Thornton, P. K., and Herrero, M. 2010. The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production , Climate Change , and the Impacts on Water Resources , Land Use , and Deforestation. World Development.
Vasta, V., Nudda, A., Cannas, A., Lanza, M., and Priolo, A. 2008. Alternative feed resources and their effects on the quality of meat and milk from small ruminants. In Animal Feed Science and Technology. 147 (1-3): 223-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.09.020
Zuidhof, M. J. 2020. Precision livestock feeding: matching nutrient supply with nutrient requirements of individual animals. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 29(1): 11-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japr.2019.12.009