Developing a more efficient sugarcane harvesting and transport system raises a number of scientific challenges and issues regarding the changes required within the industry in order to realize maximum benefits. This article has developed a simulation model for sugarcane mechanical harvesting and transportation by truck. The purpose is to increase the efficiency in the utilization of sugarcane mechanical harvesters. There is an inadequate number of trucks waiting for the transference of sugarcane from the source area, resulting in ineffective utilization of harvesters. Therefore, this study is focused on determining the suitable number of trucks in order to increase the efficiency and to reduce the waiting time for the entire system. Based on a data analysis of a sugar factory, proposed alternative strategies for allocating different numbers of trucks were used, increasing the number of trucks from 11 to 26. The result was an increase of 66.54% in harvesting utilization and a reduction in the average mechanical harvester wait times for sugarcane planting by 66.54%. Moreover harvesting from 9,000 tons to 14,562 tons can be managed, creating a total maximum profit increase of 4,077,037.20 baht or 60.59%.