Calcium Oxalate Crystals and Leaf Anatomical Characteristics of Kaempferia galanga L.

Main Article Content

Yupadee Paopun


Kaempferia galanga L. is a medicinal herb and an ornamental plant of Thailand. However, it is in decline due to the reducing forest area. In this report, we used a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to study leaf surface, leaf anatomy and crystals in the cells of K. galanga leaves. The leaves have a unique fragrant because there are oil cells on the leaf surface which contains a lot of essential oils. In addition, the leaf surface showed numerous stomata, trichomes and oil cells. The amphistomatic type had stomata distributed on both abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Tetracytic stomata types were found on the abaxial epidermis layer more than on the adaxial epidermis layer. There are unicellular trichomes on leaf veins and specific characteristics on the leaf surface. Specifically, the mesophyll cells of leaf contained calcium oxalate crystals in the cells. We found four forms of calcium oxalate crystal including prismatic, rhombic, hexagonal and octahedron. EDS spectra and X-ray maps show that the crystals were composed primarily of calcium and oxygen. This study on leaf surface, leaf anatomy and calcium oxalate crystals in the cell was a preliminary investigation that could be used for plant classification and a baseline experiment for study medicinal plants and others.

Article Details

How to Cite
Paopun, Y. Calcium Oxalate Crystals and Leaf Anatomical Characteristics of Kaempferia Galanga L. Microsc. Microanal. Res. 2020, 33, 28-33.
The 37th International Conference on The Microscopy Society of Thailand


[1] C.J. Prychid, P.J. Rudall, Calcium oxalate crystals in monocotyledons: a review of their structure and systematics, Annals of Botany, 1999, 84, 725-739. [2] H.J. Shetu, K.T. Trisha, S.A. Sikta, R. Anwar, S.S.B. Rashed, P.R. Dash, Pharmacological importance of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae): a mini review, International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences., 2018, 3(3), 32-39.
[3] M.A. Webb, Cell-mediated crystallization of calcium oxalate in plants, The Plant Cell, 1999, 11, 751-761.
[4] M.D. Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan, J. Begum and M.N. Anwar, Essential oils of leaves and rhizomes of Kaempferia galangal Linn., The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci., 2008, 3(1&2), 65-76. [5] P. Sirirugsa, Taxonomy of the genus Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) Thailand, THAI FOR BULL., 1992, 19, 1-15. [6] P.B. Tomlinson, Studies in the systematic anatomy of the Zingiberaceae, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 55(361), 547-592. [7] V.R. Franceschi, P.A. Nakata, Calcium oxalate in plants: formation and function, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 2005, 56, 41-71. [8] Y. Paopun, P. Thanomchat, S. Seraphin, Prismatic and needle-like crystal of calcium oxalate in Thai herbs, Siriraj Med J., 2016, 68(suppl 1), 3, S34-35.