Main Article Content
Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth is one of the most popular local Thai vegetables, especially in the northeast of Thailand where a relatively high rate of kidney stone illness was also found. It has been shown that there is a direct link between consuming high-oxalate vegetables and kidney stone incident. On a contrary, recent studies report the ancient traditional uses of P. pellucida in treating fever, high blood pressure, diabetes, skin disorder, among many others. Further studies are needed to investigate the controversial effects of P. pellucida. In this study, we used light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to examine Peperomia pellucida stems and leaves. Various crystal shapes of calcium oxalate were found including druses, prismatic, hexagonal and octahedron in both stems and leaves with about the same frequencies. One hundred of each crystal form were examined. The crystal sizes were varied drastically ranging from 0.11 to 27.64 μm. The raphide crystal form was not found, unlike some of the previously studied Peperomia. EDS spectra and X-ray maps show that the crystals were composed primarily of calcium and oxygen. This is a basic research with potentials to be used for the medicinal field and for anyone who wants to prevent themselves from getting too much calcium oxalate from plants.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
A. Khan, M. Rahman, S. Islam, Antipyretic activity of Peperomia pellucida in rabbit, Journal of Biology., Vol. 32, 32-41 (2008).
A. Trinchieri, F. Ostini, R. Nespoli, F. Rovera, L.E. Montanari, G. Zanetti, A prospective study of recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrence after a first renal stone, Journal of Urology., Vol. 162, 27-30 (1999).
C.D. Magdale, H.S. Ali, C.E. Cabalilero, N.G. Maunting, M.J.S. Patricio, L.D.D. Reyes, The effect of Peperomia pellucida (Shiny Bush) leaf crude extract on the body temperature of boiled milk-induced male white mice, Advancing Pharmacy Research., Vol. 1, 70-82 (2014).
C.R. Nwokocha, D.U. Awu, K. Kinlocke, J. Murray, R. Delgoda, K. Thaxter, G. McCalla, and L. Young, Possible mechanism of action of the hypotensive effect of Peperomia pellicida and interactions between human cytochrome P450 enzymes, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants., Vol. 1, 105. DOI: 10.4172/2167- 0412.1000105 (2012).
H. A. Akinnibosun, F.I. Akinnibosun, B.E. German, Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Peperomia pellucida (L.) H.B.&K. (Piperaceae) on tree gram-negative bacteria isolates, Science World Journal., Vol. 3(4), 33-36 (2008).
H.T. Horner, Peperomia leaf cell wall interface between the multiple hypodermis and crystal-containing photosynthetic layer displays unusual pot fields, Annals of Botany., Vol. 109, 1307-1315 (2012).
H.T. Horner, S. Wanke, M.S. Samain, Evolution and systematic value of leaf crystal macropatterns in the genus Peperomia (Piperaceae), Plant Sciences., Vol. 170(3), 343-354 (2009).
H.T. Horner, S. Wanke, M.S. Samain, A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae), American Journal of Botany., Vol. 99(6), 983-997 (2012).
K.K. Stamatelou, M.E. Francis, C.A. Jones, L.M. Nyberg, G.C. Curhan, Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976-1994, Kidney International., Vol. 63, 1817-1823 (2003).
L. Kuo-Huang, M.S.B. Ku, V.R. Franceschi, Correlation between calcium oxalate crystal and photosynthetic activities in palisade cells of shade-adapted Pepperomia glabella, Botanical Studied., Vol. 48, 155-164 (2007).
M. Yanagawa, J. Kawamura, T. Onishi, N. Soga, K. Kameda, P. Sriboonlue, V. Prasongwattana, S. Borwornpadungkitti, Incidence of urolithiasis in northeast Thailand, International Journal of Urology., Vol. 4, 537-540 (1997).
M.A. Webb, Cell-mediated crystallization of calcium oxalate in plants, The Plant cell., Vol. 11, 751-761 (1999).
P. Majumder, P. Abraham, V. Satya, Ethno-medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological review of an amazing medicinal herb Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK The Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences., Vol. 2(4), 358-364 (2011).
P. Tosukhowong, C. Boonla, S. Ratchanon, M. Tanthanuch, Crystalline composition and etiologic factors of kidney stone in Thailand: update 2007, Asian Biomedicine., Vol. 1, 87-95 (2007).
R. Siener, Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence, Urology Research., Vol. 34, 131-133 (2006).
R.U. Hamzah, A.A. Odetola, O.L. Erukainure, A.A. Oyagbemi, Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats, Acute Disease., Vol. 1(2), 135-140 (2012).
S. Khoomgratok, K. Wongpakam, U. Klinhom, P. Maihom, Examination of calcium oxalate from indigenous vegetables, Agricultural Science Journal., Vol. 37(6) (Suppl.), 189-192 (2006).
V.R. Franceschi, P.A. Nakata, Calcium oxalate in plants: formation and function, Annual Review Plant Biology., Vol. 56, 41-71 (2005).
W.G. Robertson, Is prevention of stone recurrence financially worthwhile, Urology Research., Vol. 34, 157-161 (2006).
Y. Paisooksantivatana, K. Nakahara, Local Vegetables of Thailand: Color illustrated, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) and Kasetsart University, 79 (2009).
Y. Paopun, P. Umrung, P. Thanomchat, C. Kongpakdee, Epidermal surface and leaf anatomy of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl, Journal of Microscopy Society of Thailand., Vol. 4(2), 61-64 (2011).
Y. Paopun, P. Thanomchat, S. Seraphin, Nanocrystals of calcium oxalate in sweet basil leaves, Proceedings of the 8th Asian Microscopy Conference and the 32nd Annual Conference and Meeting of the Microscopy Society of Thailand, 28-30 January, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 271-276 (2015).
Y. Tseng, N. Xia, M.G. Gilbert, Piperaceae, Flora of China., Vol. 4, 129-131 (1999). Available from: www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200005545. [May 14, 2015].