Resilience in Urban Transport Towards Hybrid Canal-Rail Connectivity Linking Bangkok’s Canal Networks to Mass Rapid Transit Lines
The influence of rapid development has been more focused on the growth of built up area rather than proceed through its unique characters of urban morphology, especially the megacity of developing world. A huge network of waterways in Bangkok has been overlooked on its utilizations which has been the major evidence of unprepared urban mobility to cope with a changing climate along with tackling on affordability of urban poor for their daily transportation. Thus, the study on hybrid canal-rail system improvement in Bangkok will be a good example of rethinking about transportation development under the consideration of urban context to be consistent with land use factors affecting the current mobility development. The deliberations of spatial management become crucial and being used as a tool for revitalizing urban area in particular of the Water Transit-Oriented Development (WTOD) which becomes the key measure for improving the existing physical condition of area nearby the station to increase ridership as to input to the transportation system. These findings can help city planners and decision-makers to understand WTOD formation as well as in planning and decision-making processes towards an enhancing the level of connectivity in an urban area.