Main Article Content
The Phusang waterfall is located in Phusang National Park in Phayao province, Thailand. The robustness of Phusang’s warm waterfall is regionally recognized as the only one with a temperature range of 35-36 °C which makes it an outstanding place to visit in Thailand. Surprisingly, Phusang waterfall originates from the Phusang warm pool (hot spring). However, data about the bacterial community and characteristics of this water are still obscure. Therefore, this study investigated the bacterial community and characteristics of water in the Phusang hot spring. Tests to determine its physical characteristics such as pH, color and turbidity were performed. Trace elements such as sodium, bicarbonates, iron, and fluoride were detected as chemical characteristics. The biological properties were verified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Illumina metagenomic analysis was directly demonstrated from the water after DNA extraction via a membrane filtration pore of 0.45 µm. The range of pH, color and turbidity of water from the Phusang hot spring was 7.33-7.53, 0.05-0.18 Pt.Co and 9.55-10.91 NTU, respectively. The biological study of microorganisms found less than 300 CFU/mL. Coliform bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and other examples such as Aeromonas veronii, Acinetobacter sp. Neisseriaceae bacterium were abundant. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing defined the phylum as Proteobacteria (84%), Bacteroidetes (13%), Cyanobacteria (1%), and unclassified (2%). Moreover, the amount of sodium and strontium detected was 6.00-7.52 and 1.40-1.58 mg/L respectively. These studies show that a high abundance of Proteobacteria were present in samples from this hot spring. Phusang hot spring has been classified as having low mineral content water.
Published articles are under the copyright of the Environment and Natural Resources Journal effective when the article is accepted for publication thus granting Environment and Natural Resources Journal all rights for the work so that both parties may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use. Partially or totally publication of an article elsewhere is possible only after the consent from the editors.
2. Bhongsuwan T, Auisui SA. A high natural radiation area in Khao-Than hot spring, Southern Thailand. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 2015;167(1-3):284-8.
3. Chaudhuri B, Chowdhury T, Chattopadhyay B. Comparative analysis of microbial diversity in two hot springs of Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India. Genomic Data 2017;12:122-9.
4. Ghilamicael AM, Boga HI, Anami SE, Mehari T, Budambula NLM. Potential human pathogenic bacteria in five hot springs in Eritrea revealed by next generation sequencing. PLoS ONE 2018;13(3): e0194554.
5. Ghilamicael AM, Budambula NLM, Anami SE, Mehari T, Baga HI. Evaluation of prokaryotic diversity of five hot springs in Eritrea. BMC Microbiology 2017;17(1):203.
6. Giselle ZJ, Nelson D. Action and function of Chromobacterium violaceum in health and disease: Violacein as a promising metabolite to counteract gastroenterological diseases. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology 2017;31(6):649-56.
7. Ha SK. Dietary salt intake and hypertension. Electrolyte Blood Press 2014;12(1):7-18.
8. Hayasaka S, Uchida M, Hattori M, Watanabe H, Ojima T. Association between having a hot spring water supply in the home and prevention of long-term care. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2018; 33:142-8.
9. Heni Y, Julinar M. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of thermophile community within Tanjung Sakti hot spring, South Sumatera, Indonesia. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 2015;22(3):143-8
10. Ibrahim D, Zhu HL, Yusof N, Isnaeni, Hong LS. Bacillus licheniformis BT5.9 isolated from Changar hot spring, Malang, Indonesia, as a potential producer of thermostable α-amylase. Tropical Life Sciences Research 2013;24(1):71-84.
11. Jardine JL, Abia ALK, Mavumengwana V, Ubomba JE. Phylogenetic analysis and antimicrobial profiles of cultured emerging opportunistic pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) identified in Hot Springs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2017;14(9):1070.
12. Kanasawud P, Teeyapan S, Lumyong S, Holst O, Mattiason B. Thermus 2S from Thai hot springs: Isolation and immobilization. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 1992;8(2):137-40.
13. Kanokratana P, Chanapan S, Pootanakit K, Eurwilaichitr L. Diversity and abundance of bacteria and archaea in the Bor Khlueng hot spring in Thailand. Journal of Basic Microbiology 2004;44(6):430-44.
14. Kanoksilapatham W, Keawram P, Gonzalez JM, Robb FT. Isolation, characterization, and survival strategies of Thermotoga sp. strain PD524, a hyperthermophile from a hot spring in Northern Thailand. Extremophiles 2015;19(4):853-61.
15. Lee LS, Goh KM, Chan CS, Annie TGY, Yin WF. Microbial diversity of thermophiles with biomass deconstruction potential in a foliage-rich hot spring. Microbiology Open 2018:e00615.
16. Lesley AC, Brett JT, Glen NM, Scott AH, James RE. Strontium isotopes in tap water from the coterminous USA. Ecosphere 2012;3(7):67.
17. Lin SY, Hameed A, Wen CZ, Hsu YH, Liu UC. Hydrogenophaga aquatica sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 2017;67(10):3716-21.
18. Mahajan GB, Balachandran. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs. Biochemical Pharmacology 2017;134:35-41.
19. McClung R, Roth D, Vigar M, Roberts V, Kahler A. Waterborne disease outbreaks associated with environmental and undetermined exposures to water-United States, 2013-2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2017;66:1222-5.
20. Meunier PJ, Roux C, Ortolani S, Diaz CM, Compston J. Effects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 2009;20: 1663-73
21. Meunier PJ, Roux C, Seeman E, Ortolani S, Badurski JE. The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 2004:350:459-68
22. Mohammad BT, Daghistani HI, Jaouani A, Abdel-Latif S, Kennes C. Isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from Jordanian hot springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis isolates as potential producers of thermostable enzymes. International Journal of Microbiology 2017:ID 6943952.
23. Purcell D, Sompong U, Yim LC, Barraclough TG, Peerapornpisal Y. The effects of temperature, pH and sulphide on the community structure of hyperthermophilic streamers in hot springs of northern Thailand. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2007;60(3):456-66.
24. Quattrini S, Pampaloni B, Brandi ML. Natural mineral waters: Chemical characteristics and health effects. Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism 2017;13(3):173-80.
25. Rebellon SDE, Avendano SA, Mendez FYR. Hot springs as sources of infection: An environment overlooked by public health practitioners. Journal of Infection and Public Health 2018;18:30314-9.
26. Reginster JY, Seeman E, De Vernejoul MC, Adami S, Compston J. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005;90:2816-22
27. Roux C. Strontium ranelate: Short- and long-term benefits for post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. Rheumatology 2008;47:20-2
28. Rozanov AS, Bryanskaya AV, Ivanisenko TV, Malup TK, Peltek SE. Biodiversity of the microbial mat of the Garga hot spring. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2017;17 (Suppl 2):254.
29. Seeman E, Vellas B, Benharnou C, Aquino JP, Semler J. Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women eighty years of age and older. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2006;21:1113-20
30. Signorelli C, Pasquarella C, Saccani E, Sansebastiano G. Treatment of thermal pool waters. Igiene e Sanita Pubblica 2006;62:539-52
31. Stefanie CP, Yara CB, Giselle ZJ, Paulo AN, Francisco LS. Violacein extracted from Chromobacterium violaceum inhibits Plasmodium growth in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2009; 53(5):2149-52.
32. Strunecký O, Kopejtka K, Goecke F, Tomasch J, Lukavsky J. High diversity of thermophilic cyanobacteria in Rupite hot spring identified by microscopy, cultivation, single-cell PCR and amplicon sequencing. Extremophiles 2018;23(1):35-48.
33. Sukthana Y, Lekkla A, Sutthikornchai C, Wanapongse P, Vejjajiva A. Spa, springs and safety. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2005;36(Suppl4):10-6.
34. Tang K, Kobayashi RS, Champreda V, Eurwilaichitr L, Tanapongpipat S. Isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable neopullulanase-like enzyme from a hot spring in Thailand. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2008;72(6):1448-56.
35. Thawai C, Thamsathit W, Kudo T. Planosporangium thailandense sp. nov., isolated from soil from a Thai hot spring. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 2013;63(3):1051-5.
36. Thorolfsdottir BOT, Marteinsson VT. Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2013; 10:1085-99.
37. Tirawongsaroj P, Sriprang R, Harnpicharnchai P, Thongaram T, Champreda V. Novel thermophilic and thermostable lipolytic enzymes from a Thailand hot spring metagenomic library. Journal of Biotechnology 2008;133(1):42-9.
38. Udomluk S, Hawkins PR, Besley C, Peerapornpisal Y. The distribution of cyanobacteria across physical and chemical gradients in hot springs in northern Thailand. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2005;52(3):365-76.
39. Valeriani F, Crognale S, Protano C, Gianfranceschi G, Orsini M. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community in a travertine depositing hot spring. New Microbiologica 2018;41(2):126-35.
40. Viroj W. Legionella and free living amoeba contamination in natural hot spring pools in Thailand: Overview. Bentham Science 2005;4:29-32.
41. Voerkelius S, Lorenz GD, Rummel S, Qutel CR. Strontium isotopic signatures of natural mineral waters, the reference to a simple geological map and its potential for authentication of food. Food Chemistry 2010;118:933-40.
42. Yasawong M, Areekit S, Pakpitchareon A, Santiwatanakul S, Chansiri K. Characterization of thermophilic halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam hot spring, Thailand. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2011;12(8):5294-303.