Effect of Plant Spacing and Organic Fertilizer Doses on Methane Emission in Organic Rice Fields DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.18.1.2020.07

Main Article Content

Andin Muhammad Abduh
Eko Hanudin
Benito Heru Purwanto
Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami


Methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice fields is a global concern; however, engineering plant spacing can decrease CH4 emission. Due to this, field research was conducted to measure CH4 emissions from rice fields planted using jarwo 2:1 spacing, which has a 25 × 12.5 cm and 50 cm for the plant-free area (PFA), compared to tegel, which has a spacing of 25 × 25 cm. Each field was treated with organic fertilizer (mixture of cow manure and neem compost in a ratio of 1:1) with one of four doses: 0, 3, 6 and 9 tons/ha. The results showed that chemical properties such as soluble-Fe, soil organic matter (SOM), soil acidity (pH), and redox potential (Eh) were significantly correlated with CH4 emissions (0.52***, 0.47**, 0.36*, and -0.27* respectively). Jarwo 2:1 had lower CH4 emissions than tegel on all doses of fertilizer. The most efficient dose of fertilizer was 3 tons/ha applied jarwo 2:1 because it was able to produce rice up to 12 tons/ha with CH4 emissions of only 34 kg/ha/season, while CH4 emissions in tegel was 39 kg/ha/season. It is concluded that jarwo 2:1 with 3 tons/ha organic fertilizers can be recommended to farmers because it produces lower CH4 emissions and higher rice yield.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Muhammad Abduh, A., Hanudin, E., Heru Purwanto, B., & Hidayah Utami, S. N. (2019). Effect of Plant Spacing and Organic Fertilizer Doses on Methane Emission in Organic Rice Fields: DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.18.1.2020.07. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 18(1), Page 66-74; DOI: 10.32526/ennrj.18.1.2020.07. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/216739
Original Research Articles


1. Abduh AM, Annisa W. Interaction of paddy varieties and compost with flux of methane in tidal swampland. Journal of Tropical Soils 2016;21(3):179-86.

2. Arunrat N, Pumijumnong N, Phinchongsakuldit A. Estimating soil organic carbon sequestration in rice paddies as influenced by climate change under scenario A2 and B2 of an i-EPIC model of Thailand. EnvironmentAsia 2014;7(1):65-80.

3. Bédard C, Knowles R. Physiology, biochemistry, and specific inhibitors of CH4, NH4+, and CO oxidation by methanotrophs and nitrifiers. Microbiological Reviews 1989;53:68-84.

4. Cheng W, Yagi K, Sakai H, Kobayashi K. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on CH4 and N2O emission from rice soil: an experiment in controlled-environment chambers. Biogeochemistry 2006;77(3):351-73.

5. Conrad R. Microbial ecology of methanogens and methanotrophs. Advances in Agronomy 2007;96:1-63.

6. Darmawan M. Analysis of legowo row planting system and system of rice intensification (SRI) of paddy field (Oryza Sativa L.) toward growth and production. Agrotech Journal 2016; 1(1):14-8.

7. Dinel H, Mathur SP, Brown A, Levesque M. A field study of the effect of depth on methane production in peatland waters: equipment and preliminary results. Journal of Ecology 1988;76(4):1083-91.

8. Giamerti Y, Yursak Z. Yield component performance and productivity of rice Inpari-13 varieties in various planting system. Widyariset 2013;16(3):481-8.

9. Gutierrez J, Atulba SL, Kim G, Kim PJ. Importance of rice root oxidation potential as a regulator of CH4 production under waterlogged conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 2014;50(5):861-8.

10. Humphreys J, Brye KR, Rector C, Gbur EE. Methane emissions from rice across a soil organic matter gradient in Alfisols of Arkansas, USA. Geoderma Regional 2019;15:e00200.

11. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. United Kingdom and New York: Cambridge University Press; 2014. p. 1-32.

12. Jha P, Biswas AK, Lakaria BL, Saha R, Singh M, Rao AS. Predicting total organic carbon content of soils from walkley and black analysis. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 2014;45(6):713-25.

13. Jiang Y, Van-Groenigen KJ, Huang S, Hungate BA, Van-Kessel C, Hu S, Zhang J, Wu L, Yan X, Wang L, Chen J, Hang X, Zhang Y, Horwath WR, Ye R, Linquist BA, Song Z, Zheng C, Deng A, Zhang W. Higher yields and lower methane emissions with new rice cultivars. Global Change Biology 2017;23:1-11.

14. Kabała C, Muzstyfaga E, Galka B, Labunska D, Manczynska P. Conversion of soil pH 1:2.5 KCl and 1:2.5 H2O to 1:5 H2O: Conclusions for soil management, environmental monitoring, and international soil databases. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 2016;25(2):647-53.

15. Kerdchoechuen O. Methane emission in four rice varieties as related to sugars and organic acids of roots and root exudates and biomass yield. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2005;108(2):155-63.

16. Khalil MAK, Rasmussen RA, Shearer MJ. Effects of production and oxidation processes on methane emissions from rice fields. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 1998;103(D19):25233-9.

17. Krüger M, Eller G, Conrad R, Frenzel P. Seasonal variation in pathways of CH4 production and in CH4 oxidation in rice fields determined by stable carbon isotopes and specific inhibitors. Global Change Biology 2002;8(3):265-80.

18. Kyuma K. Paddy Soil Science. Japan and Melbourne: Kyoto Unversity Press and Trans Pasific Press; 2004.

19. Liu M, Ussiri DAN, Lal R. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions under different land uses and tillage practices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 2016;47(12):1528-41.

20. Lombardi JE, Epp MA, Chanton JP. Investigation of the methyl fluoride technique for determining rhizospheric methane oxidation. Biogeochemistry 1997;36(2):153-72.

21. Malla G, Bhatia A, Pathak H, Prasad S, Jain N, Singh J. Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors. Chemosphere 2005;58(2):141-7.

22. Malyan SK, Bhatia A, Kumar A, Gupta DK, Singh R, Kumar SS, Tomer R, Kumar O, Jain N. Methane production, oxidation and mitigation: a mechanistic understanding and comprehensive evaluation of influencing factors. Science of the Total Environment 2016;572:874-96.

23. Mandal RA, Dutta IC, Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Yadav BK, Kafle RR. CO2 and CH4 emission from domestic fuel and livestock in Tarai and Bhawar in Nepal: A household-level analysis. Environment and Natural Resources Journal 2013;11(1):1-11.

24. Nurhayati A, Lili W, Herawati T, Riyantini I. Derivatif analysis of economic and social aspect of added value minapadi (paddy-fish integrative farming) a case study in the village of Sagaracipta Ciparay Sub District, Bandung West Java Province, Indonesia. Proceedings of the Aquatic Procedia of 2nd International Symposium on Aquatic Products Processing and Health: 2015 Sep 13-15; Diponegoro University, Semarang: Indonesia; 2015.

25. Opoku A, Chaves B, DeNeve S. Neem seed oil: A potent nitrification inhibitor to control nitrate leaching after incorporation of crop residues. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 2014;30(3):145-52.

26. Peng QA, Shaaban M, Hu R, Mo Y, Wu Y, Ullah B. Effects of soluble organic carbon addition on CH4 and CO2 emissions from paddy soils regulated by iron reduction processes. Soil Research 2015;53(3):316-24.

27. Prayitno HB. Methane formation in mangrove sediment. Oseana 2016;41(3):44-53.

28. Setyanto P, Rosenan AB, Boer R, Fauziah CI, Khanif MJ. The effect of rice cultivars on methane emission from irrigated rice field. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science 2004; 5(1):20-31.

29. Shahandeh H, Hossner LR, Turner FT. A comparison of extraction methods for evaluating Fe and P in flooded rice soils. Plant and Soil 1994;165:219-25.

30. Susilastuti D, Aditiameri A, Buchori U. The effect of jajar legowo planting system on Ciherang paddy varieties. Agritropica 2018;1(1):1-8.

31. Sutton-Grier AE, Keller JK, Koch R, Gilmour C, Megonigal JP. Electron donors and acceptors influence anaerobic soil organic matter mineralization in tidal marshes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2011;43(7):1576-83.

32. Toma Y, Sari NN, Akamatsu K, Oomori S, Nagata O, Nishimura S, Purwanto BH, Ueno H. Effects of green manure application and prolonging mid-season drainage on greenhouse gas emission from paddy fields in Ehime, Southwestern Japan. Agriculture 2019;9(2):29.

33. Trolldenier G. Mineral nutrition and reduction processes in the rhizosphere of rice. Plant and Soil 1977;47(1):193-202.
34. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th ed. Washington DC, Unites States of America: Natural Resources Conservation Service; 2014.

35. Wassmann R, Shangguan XJ, Cheng DX, Wang MX, Papen H, Rennenberg H, Seiler W. Spatial and seasonal distribution of organic amendments affecting methane emission from Chinese rice fields. Biology and Fertility of Soils 1996; 22(3):191-5.

36. Wassmann R, Alberto MC, Tirol-Padre A, Hoang NT, Romasanta R, Centeno CA, Sander BO. Increasing sensitivity of methane emission measurements in rice through deployment of “closed chambers” at nighttime. PLoS ONE 2018;13(2):e0191352.

37. Watanabe A, Kajiwara M, Yoshida S, Kimura M. Effect of planting density on methane emission from a rice paddy. Environmental Science 2000;13(2):223-7.

38. Weslien P, Klemedtsson ÅK, Börjesson G, Klemedtsson L. Strong pH influence on N2O and CH4 fluxes from forested organic soils. European Journal of Soil Science 2009;60(3):311-20.

39. Yuttitham M. Comparison of carbon footprint of organic and conventional farming of Chinese Kale. Environment and Natural Resources Journal 2019;17(1):78-92.

40. Zheng J, Zhang X, Li L, Zhang P, Pan G. Effect of long-term fertilization on C mineralization and production of CH4 and CO2 under anaerobic incubation from bulk samples and particle size fractions of a typical paddy soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2007;120(2-4):129-38.