Effectivity of Indonesian Rice Husk as an Adsorbent for Removing Congo Red from Aqueous Solutions 10.32526/ennrj/19/2020232

Main Article Content

Neza Rahayu Palapa
Normah Normah
Tarmizi Taher
Risfidian Mohadi
Addy Rachmat
Aldes Lesbani


Indonesian rice husk biochar (RH-BC) was prepared by pyrolysis method at 500°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface-area-specific analysis by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and scanning electron microscopy. The RH-BC were used as adsorbents for enhancing the adsorption of Congo red compared to pristine rice husk (RH) in aqueous solutions. The results of characterization through surface-area-specific analysis showed the surface area of RH-BC (72.25 m2/g) was ten times higher than RH (7.08 m2/g) owing to high-temperature treatment. The results of the adsorption study showed that the RH and RH-BC followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 85.470 mg/g and 72.993 mg/g for the RH-BC and     RH, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. The reusability of the adsorbents (RH and RH-BC) showed that they are potentially suitable for extracting Congo red from aqueous solution up to three adsorption-desorption cycles. Their performance sharply decreases after the fourth and fifth cycles.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Palapa, N. R., Normah, N., Taher, T., Mohadi, R., Rachmat, A., & Lesbani, A. (2021). Effectivity of Indonesian Rice Husk as an Adsorbent for Removing Congo Red from Aqueous Solutions: 10.32526/ennrj/19/2020232. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 19(4), 225-265. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/242020
Original Research Articles


1. Annadurai G, Juang RS, Lee DJ. Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2002;92(3):263-74.

2. Azargohar R, Dalai AK. Biochar as a precursor of activated carbon. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2006;129-132:762-73.

3. Bamroongwongdee C, Suwannee S, Kongsomsaksiri M. Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solution by surfactant-modified rice husk: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic analysis. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 2019;41(5):1076-83.

4. Banerjee S, Chattopadhyaya MC. Adsorption characteristics for the removal of a toxic dye, tartrazine from aqueous solutions by a low cost agricultural by-product. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2017;10:S1629-38.

5. Bayramoglu G, Arica MY. Adsorption of Congo red dye by native amine and carboxyl modified biomass of Funalia trogii: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics mechanisms. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 2018;35:1303-11.

6. De Bhowmick G, Sarmah AK, Sen R. Production and characterization of a value added biochar mix using seaweed, rice husk and pine sawdust: A parametric study. Journal of Cleaner Production 2018;200:641-56.

7. Boulaiche W, Hamdi B, Trari M. Removal of heavy metals by chitin: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Applied Water Science 2019;9:39.

8. Choi Y, Gurav R, Kim HJ, Yang Y, Bhatia SK. Evaluation for simultaneous removal of anionic and cationic dyes onto maple leaf-derived biochar using response surface methodology. Applied Sciences 2020;10:2982.

9. Connor DO, Peng T, Li G, Wang S, Duan L, Mulder J, et al. Sulfur-modified rice husk biochar: A green method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil. Science of the Total Environment 2018;621:819-26.

10. Cotillas S, Llanos J, Cañizares P, Clematis D, Cerisola G, Rodrigo MA, et al. Removal of Procion red MX-5B dye from wastewater by conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation. Electrochimica Acta 2018;263:1-7.

11. Fernandes IJ, Calheiro D, Kieling AG, Moraes CAM, Rocha TLAC, Brehm FA, et al. Characterization of rice husk ash produced using different biomass combustion techniques for energy. Fuel 2016;165:351-9.

12. Gad HM, Omar H, Aziz A, Hassan M, Khalil M. Treatment of rice husk ash to improve adsorption capacity of cobalt from aqueous solution. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2016;28(2):385-94.

13. Gholami P, Dinpazhoh L, Khataee A, Hassani A, Bhatnagar A. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of novel Fe-Cu layered double hydroxide/biochar nanocomposite with enhanced sonocatalytic activity for degradation of cefazolin sodium. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2019;381:120742.

14. Han R, Ding D, Xu Y, Zou W, Wang Y, Li Y, et al. Use of rice husk for the adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution in column mode. Bioresource Technology 2008;99(8):2938-46.

15. Hassaan MA, Nemr A El. Health and environmental impacts of dyes: Mini review. American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering 2017;1(3):64-7.

16. Herlina R, Masri MS. Adsorption study of rice bran against Congo red dyes in Wajo. Journal Chemical 2017;18(1):16-25.

17. Inyang M, Gao B, Yao Y, Xue Y, Zimmerman AR, Pullammanappallil P, et al. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by biochars derived from anaerobically digested biomass. Bioresource Technology 2012;110:50-6.

18. Kandisa RV, Kv NS, Shaik KB, Gopinath R. Dye removal by adsorption: A review. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation 2016;7(6):371.

19. Leng L, Yuan X, Zeng G, Shao J, Chen X, Wu Z, et al. Surface characterization of rice husk bio-char produced by liquefaction and application for cationic dye (Malachite green) adsorption. Fuel 2015;155:77-85.

20. Liu Z, Zhang FS. Removal of lead from water using biochars prepared from hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2009;167(1-3):933-9.

21. Malik A, Khan A, Natasha A, Naeem M. A comparative study of the adsorption of Congo red dye on rice husk, rice husk char and chemically modified rice husk char from aqueous media. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 2020; 34(1):41-54.

22. Mall ID, Srivastava VC, Agarwal NK, Mishra IM. Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2005;264(1-3): 17-28.

23. Mangun CL, Daley MA, Braatz RD, Economy J. Effect of pore size on adsorption of hydrocarbons in phenolic-based activated carbon fibers. Carbon 1998;36(1-2):123-9.

24. Milla OV, Rivera EB, Huang W, Chien C, Wang Y. Agronomic properties and characterization of rice husk and wood biochars and their effect on the growth of water spinach in a field test. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 2013;13(2):251-66.

25. Mohadi R, Hanafiah Z, Hermansyah H, Zulkifli H. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp. Science and Technology Indonesia 2017;2(4):102-4.

26. Momina, Shahadat M, Isamil S. Regeneration performance of clay-based adsorbents for the removal of industrial dyes: A review. RSC Advances 2018;8:24571-87.

27. Mozumder MSI, Islam MA. Development of treatment technology for dye containing industrial wastewater. Journal of Scientific Research 2010;2(3):567-76.

28. Naushad M, Abdullah A, Abdullah Z, Hotan I, Saad M, Mohammed A. Adsorption kinetics, isotherm and reusability studies for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous medium using arginine modified activated carbon. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2019;293:111442.

29. Oktriyanti M, Palapa NR, Mohadi R, Lesbani A. Modification of Zn-Cr layered double hydroxide with keggin ion. Indonesian Journal of Environmental Management and Sustainability 2019;3(3):93-9.

30. Palapa NR, Taher T, Rahayu BR, Mohadi R, Rachmat A, Lesbani A. CuAl LDH/rice husk biochar composite for enhanced adsorptive removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis 2020;15(2):525-37.

31. Palapa NR, Taher T, Mohadi R, Rachmat A, Lesbani A. Preparation of copper aluminum-biochar composite as adsorbent of malachite green in aqueous solution. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2021;16(1):259-74.

32. Patil NP, Bholay AD, Kapadnis BP, Gaikwad VB. Biodegradation of model azo dye methyl red and other textile dyes by isolate Bacillus circulans npp1. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 2016;10(4):2793-800.

33. Rabie AM, Abukhadra MR, Rady AM, Ahmed SA, Labena A, Mohamed HSH, et al. Instantaneous photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under visible light using novel green Co-ZnO/algae composites. Research on Chemical Intermediates 2020;46:1955-73.

34. Rosa SML, Rehman N, De Miranda MIG, Nachtigall SMB, Bica CID. Chlorine-free extraction of cellulose from rice husk and whisker isolation. Carbohydrate Polymers 2012;87(2):1131-8.

35. Saini RD. Textile organic dyes: Polluting effects and elimination methods from textile waste water. International Journal of Chemistry Engineering Research 2017;9(1):121-36.

36. Shakoor S, Nasar A. Removal of methylene blue dye from artificially contaminated water using citrus limetta peel waste as a very low cost adsorbent. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 2016;66:154-63.

37. Suyanta, Kuncaka A. Utilization of rice husk as raw material in synthesis of mesoporous silicates mcm-41. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 2011;11(3):279-84.

38. Thommes M, Kaneko K, Neimark AV, Olivier JP, Rodriguez-Reinoso F, Rouquerol J, et al. Physisorption of gases, with special reference to the evaluation of surface area and pore size distribution (IUPAC technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry 2015;87(9-10):1051-69.

39. Vimonses V, Lei S, Jin B, Chow CWK, Saint C. Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analysis of Congo red adsorption by clay materials. Chemical Engineering Journal 2009;148 (2-3):354-64.

40. Vinsiah R, Mohadi R, Lesbani A. Performance of graphite for Congo red and direct orange adsorption. Indonesian Journal of Environmental Management and Sustainability 2020;4: 125-32.

41. Wang F, Pan Y, Cai P, Guo T, Xiao H. Single and binary adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent. Bioresource Technology 2017;241:482-90.

42. Wang Y, Zhu L, Jiang H, Hu F, Shen X. Application of longan shell as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2016; 159:254-61.

43. Wijayanti A, Susatyo EB, Kurniawan C. Adsorpsi logam Cr(VI) dan Cu(II) pada tanah dan pengaruh penambahan pupuk organik. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science 2018;7(3):242-8 (in Indonesian).

44. Yaseen DA, Scholz M. Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: A critical review. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2019;16:1193-226.

45. Zhu J, He J, Du X, Lu R, Huang L, Ge X. A facile and flexible process of β-cyclodextrin grafted on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and host-guest inclusion studies. Applied Surface Science 2011;257(21):9056-62.

46. Zhu MX, Li YP, Xie M, Xin HZ. Sorption of an anionic dye by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxides: A case study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2005;120(1-3):163-71.