Phosphorus Recovery and Bioavailability from Chemical Extraction of Municipal Wastewater Treatment’s Waste Activated Sludge: A Case of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand 10.32526/ennrj/20/202200024

Main Article Content

Kay Thi Khaing
Chongchin Polprasert
Suwisa Mahasandana
Wanida Pimpeach
Withida Patthanaissaranukool
Supawadee Polprasert

Abstract

This study evaluated the extractability and bioavailability of Phosphorus (P) recovered from waste activated sludge (WAS) so as to reduce dependence on the import of non-renewable P resources. P extraction was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4). A response surface methodology was used to optimize conditions for the chemical leaching of WAS. The results showed the optimum condition for leaching WAS with 0.1 mol/L H2SO4 for 30 min, resulting in 97% P released. The efficiency of P recovery by P precipitation was associated with pH value and Mg:P. At pH 7, 9, and 11, P recovery was 92, 92, and 91% with uncontrolled Mg and 93, 93, and 92% with sea salt (Mg:P, 2:1), respectively. However, the yield of the produced struvite was much lower compared with that of added sea salt. From elemental analysis, the yield of struvite precipitated at pH 9 of Mg:P, 2:1 was about 26%, and the total P content of the precipitate was 12%. Available P was almost 80% after 35 days of operation, which was higher than that of commercial fertilizers. Results of this study are expected to provide fully comprehensive information to decision-makers regarding the suitability of implementing P-composite matter recovered from WAS. This will also help close the loop of the P cycle for food cultivation in the human ecosystem.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Thi Khaing, K., Polprasert, C., Mahasandana, S., Pimpeach, W., Patthanaissaranukool, W., & Polprasert, S. (2022). Phosphorus Recovery and Bioavailability from Chemical Extraction of Municipal Wastewater Treatment’s Waste Activated Sludge: A Case of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand: 10.32526/ennrj/20/202200024. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 20(4), 369–378. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ennrj/article/view/246593
Section
Original Research Articles

References

Ackerman JN, Zvomuya F, Cicek N, Flaten D. Evaluation of manure-derived struvite as a phosphorus source for canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 2013;93(3):419-24.

American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 22nd ed. Washington, DC, USA: APHA; 2012.

Anderson-Cook CM, Borror CM, Montgomery DC. Response surface design evaluation and comparison. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2009;139(2):629-41.

Atienza-Martínez M, Gea G, Arauzo J, Kersten SR, Kootstra AMJJb. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash. Bioenergy 2014;65:42-50.

Balmer P. Phosphorus recovery: An overview of potentials and possibilities. Water Science and Technology 2004;49(10): 185-90.

Barbosa SG, Peixoto L, Meulman B, Alves MM, Pereira MA. A design of experiments to assess phosphorous removal and crystal properties in struvite precipitation of source separated urine using different Mg sources. Chemical Engineering Journal 2016;298:146-53.

Beal LJ, Burns RT, Stalder KJ. Effect of anaerobic digestion on struvite production for nutrient removal from swine waste prior to land application. Proceedings of the ASAE Annual International Meeting; 1999 July 18-21; Sheraton Centre: Canada; 1999.

Chen M, Graedel T. A half-century of global phosphorus flows, stocks, production, consumption, recycling, and environmental impacts. Global Environmental Change 2016;36:139-52.

Chen Y, Wang D, Zhu X, Zheng X, Feng L. Long-term effects of copper nanoparticles on wastewater biological nutrient removal and N2O generation in the activated sludge process. Environmental Science and Technology 2012;46(22):12452-8.

Coetzer R, Joubert T, Viljoen C, Nel R, Strydom C. Response surface models for synthetic jet fuel properties. Applied Petrochemical Research 2018;8(1):39-53.

Cordell D, White S. Life's bottleneck: Sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 2014;39:161-88.

Cornell JA. Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models, and the Analysis of Mixture Data. Volume 403. John Wiley and Sons; 2011.

Donatello S, Freeman-Pask A, Tyrer M, Cheeseman CJC. Effect of milling and acid washing on the pozzolanic activity of incinerator sewage sludge ash. Composites Part C 2010;32(1):54-61.

Falowo OA, Oloko-Oba MI, Betiku E. Biodiesel production intensification via microwave irradiation-assisted trans-esterification of oil blend using nanoparticles from elephant-ear tree pod husk as a base heterogeneous catalyst. Chemical Engineering and Processing-Process Intensification 2019; 140:157-70.

Fang L, Li, Guo MZ, Cheeseman CR, Tsang DCW, Donatello S, et al. Phosphorus recovery and leaching of trace elements from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA). Chemosphere. 2018;193:278-87.

Frossard E, Skrabal P, Sinaj S, Bangerter F, Traore O. Forms and exchangeability of inorganic phosphate in composted solid organic wastes. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 2002;62(2):103-13.

Geissler B, Mew MC, Weber O, Steiner G. Efficiency performance of the world's leading corporations in phosphate rock mining. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2015;105:246-58.

Gorazda K, Tarko B, Wzorek Z, Nowak AK, Kulczycka J, Henclik AJOC. Characteristic of wet method of phosphorus recovery from polish sewage sludge ash with nitric acid. Open Chemistry 2016;14(1):37-45.

Iweka SC, Owuama K, Chukwuneke JL, Falowo OA. Optimization of biogas yield from anaerobic co-digestion of corn-chaff and cow dung digestate: RSM and python approach. Heliyon 2021;7(11):e08255.

Khaita C, Polprasert C. Effect of organic matter on struvite precipitation of phosphorus contained in tapioca-starch wastewater. Thai Environmental Engineering Journal 2019; 33(1):31-9.

Kodera H, Hatamoto M, Abe K, Kindaichi T, Ozaki N, Ohashi A. Phosphate recovery as concentrated solution from treated wastewater by a PAO-enriched biofilm reactor. Water Research 2013;47(6):2025-32.

Li WW, Yu HQ, Rittmann BE. Chemistry: Reuse water pollutants. Nature 2015;528:29-31.

Liang S, Chen H, Zeng X, Li Z, Yu W, Xiao K, et al. A comparison between sulfuric acid and oxalic acid leaching with subsequent purification and precipitation for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. Water Research 2019; 159:242-51.

Lind B-B, Ban Z, Bydén S. Nutrient recovery from human urine by struvite crystallization with ammonia adsorption on zeolite and wollastonite. Bioresource Technology 2000;73(2):169-74.

Maekawa T, Liao CM, Feng XD. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal for swine wastewater using intermittent aeration batch reactor followed by ammonium crystallization process. Water Research 1995;29(12):2643-50.

Onsekizoglu P, Bahceci KS, Acar J. The use of factorial design for modeling membrane distillation. Journal of Membrane Science 2010;349(1-2):225-30.

Ottosen LM, Kirkelund GM, Jensen PE. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum. Chemosphere 2013;91(7):963-9.

Perera P, Han ZY, Chen YX, Wu WX. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorous as struvite from swine waste biogas digester effluent. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2007; 20(5):343-50.

Pinatha Y, Polprasert C, Englande Jr AJ. Product and cost perspectives of phosphorus recovery from human urine using solid waste ash and sea salt addition: A case of Thailand. Science of the Total Environment 2020;713:Article No. 136514.

Rahman MM, Salleh MAM, Rashid U, Ahsan A, Hossain MM, Ra CS. Production of slow release crystal fertilizer from wastewaters through struvite crystallization: A review. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2014;7(1):139-55.

Sano A, Kanomata M, Inoue H, Sugiura N, Xu KQ, Inamori YJC. Extraction of raw sewage sludge containing iron phosphate for phosphorus recovery. Chemosphere 2012;89(10):1243-7.

Shiba NC, Ntuli F. Extraction and precipitation of phosphorus from sewage sludge. Waste Management 2017;60:191-200.

Sreesai S, Peapueng P, Tippayamongkonkun T, Sthiannopkao S. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products. Waste Management and Research 2013;31(9):925-36.

Talboys PJ, Heppell J, Roose T, Healey JR, Jones DL, Withers PJ. Struvite: A slow-release fertiliser for sustainable phosphorus management? Plant and Soil 2016;401(1-2):109-23.

Thitanuwat B, Polprasert C, Englande Jr AJ. Quantification of phosphorus flows throughout the consumption system of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand. Science of the Total Environment 2016;542:1106-16.

Tong J, Chen Y. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment. Water Research 2009; 43(12):2969-76.

Van Vuuren DP, Bouwman AF, Beusen AH. Phosphorus demand for the 1970-2100 period: A scenario analysis of resource depletion. Global Environmental Change 2010;20(3):428-39.

Vaneeckhaute C, Lebuf V, Michels E, Belia E, Vanrolleghem PA, Tack FM, et al. Nutrient recovery from digestate: Systematic technology review and product classification. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2017;8(1):21-40.

Wang Q, Li Js, Tang P, Fang L, Poon CS. Sustainable reclamation of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash as value-added struvite by chemical extraction, purification and crystallization. Journal of Cleaner Production 2018;181: 717-25.

Wang D, Fu Q, Xu Q, Liu Y, Ngo HH, Yang Q, et al. Free nitrous acid-based nitrifying sludge treatment in a two-sludge system enhances nutrient removal from low-carbon wastewater. Bioresource Technology 2017;244:920-8.

Wang X, Wang Y, Zhang X, Feng H, Li C, Xu T. Phosphate recovery from excess sludge by conventional electrodialysis (CED) and electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 2013;52(45):15896-904.

Withers PJ, Elser JJ, Hilton J, Ohtake H, Schipper WJ, Van Dijk KC. Greening the global phosphorus cycle: How green chemistry can help achieve planetary P sustainability. Green Chemistry 2015;17(4):2087-99.

Xu D-C, Zhong C-Q, Yin K-H, Peng S-H, Zhu T-T, Cheng G. Alkaline solubilization of excess mixed sludge and the recovery of released phosphorus as magnesium ammonium phosphate. Bioresource Technology 2018;249:783-90.

Xu H, He P, Gu W, Wang G, Shao L. Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2012;24(8):1533-8.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Ma C, Liu L, Pan J, Li B, et al. Improving heavy metals removal, dewaterability and pathogen removal of waste activated sludge using enhanced chemical leaching. Journal of Cleaner Production 2020;271:Article No. 122512.

Zhao J, Gui L, Wang Q, Liu Y, Wang D, Ni BJ, et al. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Water Research 2017;123:724-33.