Main Article Content
Although conventional activated sludge has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach for extracting nitrogenous chemicals and organic pollutants from wastewater, it still has a number of drawbacks. In this research, a pilot-scale biocord-integrated fixed-film activated sludge (Biocord-IFAS) reactor fed with actual domestic wastewater was operated to examine the effect of varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the COD and nitrogen removal. The type of material employed in this study is fibrous polypropylene (biocord), which is a major difference. The contribution of the Biocord-IFAS to COD removal efficiency reached 94.2% at HRT of 8 h and gradually decreased to 82.9% when HRT was reduced to 4 h. During the investigation period, a slight decrease in nitrification was found at a shorter HRT. The NH4+-N removal efficiencies at HRTs of 10, 8, 6, and 4 h were 97.8%, 98.7%, 97.1%, and 96.3%, respectively. The average effluent nitrate concentration was 5.3 mg/L with HRTs from 10 to 6 h, but over 30 mg/L with an HRT of 4 h. The SEM analysis results show that microorganisms have formed on the biocord surface. The results of this research have demonstrated the potential application of IFAS reactors in bioremediation procedures employing biocord material with great processing efficiency.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Published articles are under the copyright of the Environment and Natural Resources Journal effective when the article is accepted for publication thus granting Environment and Natural Resources Journal all rights for the work so that both parties may be protected from the consequences of unauthorized use. Partially or totally publication of an article elsewhere is possible only after the consent from the editors.
Baird RB, Eaton AD, Rice EW. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association (APHA); American Water Works Association (AWWA); Water Environment Federation (WEF); 2017.
Bassin J, Kleerebezem R, Rosado A, van Loosdrecht MM, Dezotti M. Effect of different operational conditions on biofilm development, nitrification, and nitrifying microbial population in moving-bed biofilm reactors. Environmental Science and Technology 2012;46(3):1546-55.
Dang HT, Dinh CV, Nguyen KM, Tran NT, Pham TT, Narbaitz RM. Loofah sponges as bio-carriers in a pilot-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment. Sustainability 2020;12(11):Article No. 4758.
Eslami H, Ehrampoush MH, Falahzadeh H, Hematabadi PT, Khosravi R, Dalvand A, et al. Biodegradation and nutrients removal from greywater by an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) in different organic loadings rates. AMB Express 2018;8(1):1-8.
Gu J, Xu G, Liu Y. An integrated AMBBR and IFAS-SBR process for municipal wastewater treatment towards enhanced energy recovery, reduced energy consumption and sludge production. Water Research 2017;110:262-9.
Kim HS, Gellner JW, Boltz JP, Freudenberg RG, Gunsch CK, Schuler AJ. Effects of integrated fixed film activated sludge media on activated sludge settling in biological nutrient removal systems. Water Research 2010;44(5):1553-61.
Kim HS, Schuler AJ, Gunsch CK, Pei R, Gellner J, Boltz JP, et al. Comparison of conventional and integrated fixed‐film activated sludge systems: Attached‐and suspended‐growth functions and quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements. Water Environment Research 2011;83(7):627-35.
Lariyah M, Mohiyaden H, Hayder G, Hussein A, Basri H, Sabri A, et al. Application of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed activated sludge (IFAS) for biological river water purification system: a short review. Proceedings of the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 2016 Feb 23-25 ;Putrajaya: Malaysia; 2016.
Leyva-Díaz J, Martín-Pascual J, Poyatos J. Moving bed biofilm reactor to treat wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2017;14(4):881-910.
Mahendran B, Lishman L, Liss SN. Structural, physicochemical and microbial properties of flocs and biofilms in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFFAS) systems. Water Research 2012;46(16):5085-101.
Malovanyy A, Trela J, Plaza E. Mainstream wastewater treatment in integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor by partial nitritation/anammox process. Bioresource Technology 2015;198:478-87.
Moretti P, Choubert JM, Canler JP, Buffière P, Pétrimaux O, Lessard P. Dynamic modeling of nitrogen removal for a three-stage integrated fixed-film activated sludge process treating municipal wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 2018;41(2):237-47.
Nhut HT, Hung NTQ, Sac TC, Bang NHK, Tri TQ, Hiep NT, et al. Removal of nutrients and organic pollutants from domestic wastewater treatment by sponge-based moving bed biofilm reactor. Environmental Engineering Research 2020;25(5): 652-8.
Onnis-Hayden A, Dair D, Johnson C, Schramm A, Gu AZ. Kinetics and nitrifying populations in nitrogen removal processes at a full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) plant. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 2007;15:3099-119.
Onnis-Hayden A, Majed N, Schramm A, Gu AZ. Process optimization by decoupled control of key microbial populations: Distribution of activity and abundance of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and nitrifying populations in a full-scale IFAS-EBPR plant. Water Research 2011;45(13):3845-54.
Regmi P, Thomas W, Schafran G, Bott C, Rutherford B, Waltrip D. Nitrogen removal assessment through nitrification rates and media biofilm accumulation in an IFAS process demonstration study. Water Research 2011;45(20):6699-708.
Shao Y, Shi Y, Mohammed A, Liu Y. Wastewater ammonia removal using an integrated fixed-film activated sludge-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (IFAS-SBR): Comparison of suspended flocs and attached biofilm. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2017;116:38-47.
Shreve MJ, Brennan RA. Trace organic contaminant removal in six full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) systems treating municipal wastewater. Water Research 2019;151:318-31.
Singh NK, Kazmi AA, Starkl M. Environmental performance of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating actual municipal wastewater during start-up phase. Water Science and Technology 2015;72(10):1840-50.
Sriwiriyarat T, Pittayakool K, Fongsatitkul P, Chinwetkitvanich S. Stability and capacity enhancements of activated sludge process by IFAS technology. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 2008;43(11):1318-24.
Vergine P, Salerno C, Berardi G, Pollice A. Sludge cake and biofilm formation as valuable tools in wastewater treatment by coupling integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with self forming dynamic membrane bioreactors (SFD-MBR). Bioresource Technology 2018;268:121-7.
Wang C, Liu S, Xu X, Zhang C, Wang D, Yang F. Achieving mainstream nitrogen removal through simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor. Chemosphere 2018;203:457-66.
Xu S, Wu D, Hu Z. Impact of hydraulic retention time on organic and nutrient removal in a membrane coupled sequencing batch reactor. Water Research 2014;55:12-20.
Xu X, Liu G-h, Li Q, Wang H, Sun X, Shao Y, et al. Optimization nutrient removal at different volume ratio of anoxic-to-aerobic zone in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) system. Science of the Total Environment 2021;795:Article No. 148824.