Alternative social welfare model for older persons: decreasing social inequality

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Rapeepan Kumhom
Lek Sombat


Report in Thailand indicates that the country ranks at the 61st from 149 countries in Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs). Thailand receives 62.2 points out of 100. Only for SDG No. 1, the country receives an overall good
score in terms of reducing poverty. As for SDG No. 10, reduction in inequality is one of four objectives that the Thai
government intends to hasten. The Thai government intends to reduce inequality in Aged society by 2021. The
government has adopted a 20-year National Strategy and integrated the objective as a part of the 12th National
Economic and Social Development Plan. It also has a National Plan for the Older Persons (2002-2021) as a measure
for implementation. In the plan, there are 4 main principles which are social service, social insurance, social
assistance and social partnership. The government focuses on stakeholder and increased roles of private sector,
community organizations, local organizations, and organizations that work with the older persons in organizing
welfare. There are three dimensions under the inequality situation of welfare in Thailand. These include economic
dimension, welfare dimension, and human dignity dimension. The findings of the study on welfare model for the
older persons vary according to local context. New findings reveal five Models (1) Kohka Welfare model (2)
Partnership welfare model (3) group welfare by Elder Organization model (4) Local and Cultural Welfare model (5)
Recommendations in managing welfare and reducing inequalities in the older persons’ society include review of
national health policy and access to universal insurance. Differentiation exists between social insurance and public
officers as well as state enterprises’ access to welfare. Employment opportunities should be increased for older
persons by extending the hiring years from 60 to 65 years. Support should be given for the older persons to plan
their finance. Lastly, support for stakeholder participation in welfare should increase for the older persons in order to
reduce the different dimensions of inequality.

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How to Cite
Kumhom, R., & Sombat, L. (2019). Alternative social welfare model for older persons: decreasing social inequality. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 13(6), 1–11. Retrieved from
Review Article