Application of response surface method (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) for optimization of cassava yield

Main Article Content

Abass I. Taiwo
Saheed A. Agboluaje
Waliu A. Lamidi


The decline of agricultural output which has made Nigeria turn from a major agriculture-based exporter to an importing country has prompted us to investigate the effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N.P.K) fertilizer on the yield of cassava planted on non-fertile land using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A three-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to determine the effects of the fertilizers on the yield of cassava. The polynomial regression model was developed and validated prior to optimization studies. It was found that the optimum production conditions for the cassava yield were 63.95 kg/ha of nitrogen, 154.35 kg/ha of phosphorus and 45.56 kg/ha of potassium. The 3D response surface plot derived from the Mathematical models was applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the conditions, the maximum cassava yield was 29.90kg/ha. The Coeffcient of determination (R2) and adjusted R2 values were 0.9240 and 0.8556 respectively. This showed that the experimental values are in good agreement with the predicted values based on the analysis of variance result. This study proved that Response Surface Methodology can be used effectively to optimize the yield of cassava, and the Central Composite Design is effcient, simple, economical and time-saving which can be adopted for optimizing crop yields.

Article Details

How to Cite
I. Taiwo, A., A. Agboluaje, S., & A. Lamidi, W. (2019). Application of response surface method (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) for optimization of cassava yield. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 14(6). Retrieved from
Review Article


M. A. Waheed, O. D. Samuel, B. O. Bolaji, O. U. Dairo, Optimization of Nigerian restaurant waste cooking biodiesel re-action parameters using response surface methodology, International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering 3(4)(2014) 21 – 33.

S. V. Lall, H. Selod, Z. Shalizi, Rural-urban migration in developing countries: A survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings, World Bank policy research, Working paper 3915(2016) 1 – 63.

Food Security and Food Justice, 2018, Available from: place-for-cassava-and-food security/.

FAOSTAT, United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (UN-FAO) online statistics database, 2013, Available from:

L. Mathias, V. H. Kabamba, Potential to increase cassava yield through cattle manure and fertilizer application: Results from Bunda College, Central Malawi, African Journal of Plant Science 9(5) (2015) 228 – 234.

W. Jonathan, Food Security: Threat Factors, Policies and Challenges, Nova Science Publishers, USA, 2017.

A. M. Umo, K. L. Egemba, E. N. Bassey, B. R. Etuk, Optimization of the ethanol fermentation of cassava waste using RS method, Global Journal of Engineering research 12 (2015) 13 –23.

R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Thresh, A. Bellotti, Cassava, Biology, Production and Utilization, New York: CABI Publishing, 2001.

R. K. Pandey, J. W. Maranville, M. M. Chetima, Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment:II. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction, Agricultural Water Management 46(1) (2002) 15 – 27.

D. K. Asare, E. O. Ayeh, G. Amenorpe, Response of Rain-fed Cassava to methods of Application of Fertilizer-Nitrogen in a Coastal Savannah Environment of Ghana, World Journal of Agricultural Science 5(3) (2009) 323 – 327.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. Production, Perspectives and Future Prospects,1994.

S. Kamaraj, J. R. Murugappan, R. T. Ngendra, Balanced Fertilization for Cassava for cassava, Better Crops, 2008.

S. Adjei-Nsiah, R. N. Issaka, Farmers’ agronomic and social evaluation of evaluation of productivity yield and cooking quality in four cassava varieties. American. Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39(1) (2013) 165 – 174.

M. R. Vijayan, R. S. Aiyer, Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the yield and quality of cassava, Agriculture Research Journal 7 (1969) 84 – 90.

J. K. Koech, M. K. Mutiso, J. K. Koskei, RSM Approach to the optimization of Potato (Solanum tubersom) tuber yield using second order rotatable design. Journal Biometric and Bio-statistics 3(3) (2015) 1 – 6.

T. F. Adepoju, O. Olawale, O. J. Ojediran, S. K. Layokun, Ap-plication of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) fo achieving desire BA in the Biotrans-formation of Benzaldehyde using free cell of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and the effect of β-Cyclodextrin, International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research 3(1)(2014) 62 – 79.

M. O. Aremu, O. E. Oke, A. O. Arinkoola, K. K. Salem, Development of optimum operating parameter for bioelectricity generation from sugar water waste using RMS, Journal of Scientific research and report 3(15) (2014) 2098 – 2099.

Z. Liu, L. Mei, Q. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Tao, Optimization of sub critical fluid extraction of seed oil from Nitraria Tangutorumusing RSM, LWT food and Technology 56 (2014) 168 – 174.

J. O. Olajide, T. J. Afolabi, J. A. Adeniran, Optimization of oil yield from she a kernels using response surface methodology and adaptive Neuro Fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology 3(8)2014 1611 – 1620.

A. E. Mohammad, M. Saeid, R. Shahin, Using response surface methodology to investigate the effects of drying parameters on browning of dried banana slices, American Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 3(1) (2015) 12 – 23.

H. Morteza, A. O. Sahim, Optimization of encapsulated clove oil particle size with biodegradable shell using design expert methodology, Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology 12(2) (2015)149 – 160.

K. M. Dennis, RSM for Application of response surface methodology for Optimization of Potato Tuber Yield, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics 4(4) (2015)300 – 304.

L. Sunitha, K. A. Lakshmi, K. V. N. Saibaba, Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of growth of pearl millet, British Microbiology Research Journal 6(3) (2015)154 – 166.

S. V. Cira, A. Dag, A. Karakus, Application RSM and central composite design for modeling an optimization of rubber surface quality, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering(2016) 1 – 13.

H. S. Kusuma, M. Mahfud, Response surface methodology for optimization studies of microwave-assisted extraction oil,Journal of Material and Environment Science 7(6) (2016) 1958– 1971.

S. Mohammad, S. Jaber, Determination of optimal combination of applied water and nitrogen for Potato yield using response surface methodology (RSM). A Society of Science and Nature Publication, Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications 9(1) (2016) 46 – 54.

T. U. Nwabueze, F. O. Odunsi, Optimization of processconditions for cassava (Manihot esculenta) Lafun production,African Journal of Biotechnology 6(5) (2007) 603 – 611.

S. Mohhammed, Y. Suzana, L. Abrarb, O. P. David, P. Angga, Application of response surface methodology to investigate the effect of different variables on conversion of palm kernel shell in stream gasification using coal bottom ash, Applied Energy 184 (2016) 1306 – 1315.

E. Hazir, K. H. Kuc, S. Hizinglu, Optimization of sanding parameters using response surface methodology, Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia 19 (2017) 407 – 416.

J. C. Nwaiwu, Farmers perceived effects of soil degradation on the yield of improved cassava varieties in South-East Nigeria.Agricultural Science Research Journal 7(3) (2017) 122 – 128.

L. Mohammed, Y. Elkettami, A. Alli, E. Mohammed, J. Mohammed, Application of RSM for optimization of Extracellur glasucoanyle production by Candida guilliemondii, Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 20 (2017) 100 – 107.

H. M. Bui, Application of response methodology to optimize the treatment of Swine slaughterhouse by Electrocoagulation, Polish Journal of Environment Studies 27(5) (2018) 1975 –1981.

S. Karimifard, M. M. R. Alavi, Application of response surface methodology in physico chemical removal of dyes from wastewater: A Critical review, Science of the Total Environment (2018) 772 – 797.

S. Deng, Y. Chen, A study by response surface methodology (RSM) on optimization of Phosphorus adsorption with nona Spherical Calcium Carbonate derived from waste, Water Science and Technology 79(1) (2019) 188 – 197.

H. Degne, R. Karthikeyan, S. Feleke, Waste to energy: Response surface methodology for optimization of biodiesel production from leather fleshing waste, Journal of Energy (2019)1 – 19.