An impact analysis of a Deposit-Refund System to mitigate hazardous packaging waste in Thai agricultural sector

Main Article Content

Komwit Siritorn
Direk Patmasiriwat


Hazardous waste could harm human, animal, and ecology system and it has been a critical issue in Thailand for many years. One of the main sources of hazardous waste would come from the agricultural sector such as herbicide and pesticide chemical. In order to cope with these a Deposit-Refund System (DRS) may be a suitable policy to mitigate the waste especially hazardous packaging waste used in the sector. This theoretical work attempted to investigate impacts of the policy on the market including hazardous chemical and agricultural product prices. The findings showed that whenever DRS is imposed in the agricultural sector, the price of hazardous chemical products would increase by the total of the marginal administrative cost of hazardous packaging waste management and the marginal renting cost of keeping hazardous packaging wastes for return. In addition, the price of agricultural products would also increase by the value of administrative cost and renting area cost per unit of hazardous packaging waste. As a result, the policy maker needs to prepare for the rising prices together with the policy implementation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Siritorn, K., & Patmasiriwat, D. . (2020). An impact analysis of a Deposit-Refund System to mitigate hazardous packaging waste in Thai agricultural sector. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 15(3), 14–18. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Pollution Control Department. Thailand Pollution situation in 2014, Available from: cfm (accessed 20 Oct 2017).

Pollution Control Department. Situation, Problem and Policy Guideline for Waste Management in Thailand, Available from: (accessed 20 Oct 2017).

T. Tietenberg, Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, New York: Addison-Wesley, 2000.

E. W. Oates, J. W. Baumol, The instruments for Environment Policy, National Bureau of Economic Researc, Available from: (accessed 15 March 2017).

OECD, Applying economic instruments to packaging waste: practical issue for product charge and deposit-refund system, OECD Environment monographs, 82 (1993) 1 -- 68.

D. Hogg, C. Sherrington, T. Vergunst, A comparative study on economic instruments promoting waste prevention, Eunomia Research and Consulting Ltd. Available from: (accessed 17 January 2017).

D. Fullerton, W. Wu, Policies for Green Design, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36 (1998) 131 -- 148.

K. Siritorn, C. K. Permpoonwiwat, Effects of area characteristics and municipal waste collection fees on household waste generation, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 22 (2020) 89 -- 96.

D. Fullerton, A. Wolverton, The case for a two-part instrument: presumptive tax and environmental subsidy, NBER Working Papers 5993, Available from: (accessed 20 Oct 2017).

D. Fullerton, A. Wolverton, Two generations of a deposit-refund system, American Economic Review 90(2) (2000) 238 -- 242.

K. Palmer, M. Walls, Optimal policies for solid waste disposal Taxes, subsidies, and standards, Journal of Public Economics 65 (1997) 193 -- 205.

K. Palmer, H. Sigman, M. Walls, The cost of reducing municipal solid waste, Journal of environmental economics and management 33 (1997) 128 -- 150.

M. Walls, Deposit-Refund Systems in Practice and Theory, RRF Discussion Paper; 2011, Available from: https://www. (accessed 20 Oct 2017).

F. Oosterhuis, E. Papyrakis, B. Boteler, Economic instruments and marine litter control, Ocean $&$ Coastal Management 102 (2014) 47 -- 54.

D. Fullerton, A. Wolverton, The two-part instrument in a second-best world, Journal of Public Economics 89 (2005) 1961 -- 1975.

D. Lavee, A cost-benefit analysis of a deposit-refund program for beverage containers in Israel, Waste Management 30 (2010) 338 -- 345.

D. Numata, Economic analysis of deposit-refund systems with measures for mitigating negative impacts on suppliers, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 53 (2009) 199 -- 207.

R. B. Belzer, Economic Incentives for Hazardous Waste Management: Deposit-Refund Systems and Used Lubricating Oil [dissertation], Harvard University, 1989.

D. Numata, Optimal design of deposit-refund systems considering allocation of unredeemed deposits, Environmental Economics and Policy Studies 13 (2011) 303 -- 321.

Songkhla Municipal Office, Songkhla Municipality Report 2016,Songkhla Municipal Office Website, Available from: (accessed 15 March 2017)