Social support of the older persons during the second waves of COVID-19 pandemic in semi-rural Thailand

Main Article Content

Wanpen Waelveerakup
Saowaree Aeamlaor
Ruffel Joy C. Manalo
Jirada Pheungsakul
Paweena Phonudom
Sirinart Yodyai
Sumathra Chaiyo


Objectives: COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease; infected older persons are more likely to depart than other ages. Also, people with a lack of social support can get the infection easily. This study aimed to examine the social support needs of older persons and compare the differences in the social support needs by factors of age, sex, occupation, chronic disease, marital status, and family economic status.

Study design: Descriptive study design.

Methods: Data were collected from 267 older persons who lived in semi-rural Thailand during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic by a self-administered questionnaire or face-to-face interviews. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA.

Results: All participants required social support, while 56.2% needed a high level. The top three aspects needed include distributing the old-age allowance in the community (86.9%), supporting disease prevention equipment (83.1%), and providing a place to coordinate and a person who could provide information about COVID-19 thoroughly in the community (80.1%). Older persons with underlying medical conditions needed significantly higher social support than those without diseases (p < .001. Statistically insignificantly differences in social support needs (p = .86) are found by sex (p = .83), occupation (p = .52), marital status (p = .56), and family economic status (p = .94).

Conclusions: The overall social support needs of the participants were at a high level. Increasing old-age allowance and supporting protective materials, coordinating sources, and providing information about COVID-19 thoroughly in the community, and the tailed care delivery for those underlying medical conditions are recommended.

Article Details

How to Cite
Waelveerakup, W., Aeamlaor, S. ., Manalo, R. J. C. ., Pheungsakul, J. ., Phonudom, P. ., Yodyai, S. ., & Chaiyo, S. . (2022). Social support of the older persons during the second waves of COVID-19 pandemic in semi-rural Thailand. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(2), 8–13. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Y. C. Liu, R. L. Kuo, S. R. Shih, COVID-19: The first documented coronavirus pandemic in history, Biomedical Journal 43(4) (2020) 328-333.

W. S. Lim, C. K. Liang, P. Assantachai, T. W. Auyeung, L. Kang, W. J. Lee, H. Arai, COVID-19 and older people in Asia: Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia calls to actions, Geriatrics & Gerontology International 20(6) (2020) 547-558.

Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, COVID-19 situation in Thailand, 2020, 12 April 2020).

K. Iyengar, A. Mabrouk, V. K. Jain, A. Venkatesan, R. Vaishya, Learning opportunities from COVID-19 and future effects on health care system, Diabetology $&$ Metabolic Syndrome 14(5) (2020) 943-946.

J. S. House, Social support and social structure, Sociological forum 2(1) (1997) 135-146.

L. Y. Saltzman, T. C. Hansel, P. S. Bordnick, Loneliness, isolation, and social support factors in post-COVID-19 mental health, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 12(S1) (2020) S55-S57.

B. Suksripeng, Social support theory, 2013, posts/115753 (accessed 24 November 2019).

S. Mukhtar, Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak, International Journal of Social Psychiatry 66(5) (2020) 512-516.

C. Liu, N. Huang, M. Fu, H. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Guo, Relationship between risk perception, social support, and mental health among general Chinese population during the COVID-19 pandemic, Risk Management and Healthcare Policy 14(May) (2021) 843-853.

Nakhon Pathom Provincial Public Health Office, Public health strategic plan, fiscal year 2020-2023, Nakhon Pathom Province: Hard Copy 2019 (in Thai).

United Nation Thailand, Oxford Policy Management, Social impact assessment of COVID-19 in Thailand, 2020, (accessed 28 July 2020).

F. Faul, E. Erdfelder, A. G. Lang, A. Buchner, G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences, Behavior Research Methods 39(2) (2007) 175-91.

ILC Singapore, Financial security of older women: perspectives from South East Asia. Singapore, 2019, /uploads/2020/04/ILC-Singapore-Biennial-Report-for-ILC-GA-2019.pdf (accessed 28 July 2020).

Asian Development Bank, COVID-19 and older people in Thailand, 2020, -sd-10.pdf 2020 (accessed 28 July 2020).

W. Pothisiri, P. M. M. Vicerra, Psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic in low-income and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional study of older persons in Thailand, BMJ Open 11(4) (2021) e047650.

Nakhon Pathom Provincial Public Health Office, COVID-19 Nakhon Pathom Provincial report, Nakhon Pathom Province Hard Copy 2020 (in Thai).

G. Serafini, B. Parmigiani, A. Amerio, A Aguglia, L. Sher, M. Amore, The psychological impact of COVID-19 on the mental health in the general population, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 113(8) (2020) 531-537.

V. Haldane, et al., Health systems resilience in managing the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons from 28 countries, Nature Medicine 27 (2021) 964-980.

T. C. Hansel, L. Y. Saltzman, P. S. Bordnick, Behavioral health and response for COVID-19, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 14(5) (2020) 670-676.

W. Waelveerakup, J. Davison, P. Lapvongwatana, S. Leelacharas. Factors predicting stroke pre-hospital delay behavior intention among people with high risk of stroke, Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research 23(3) (2019) 271-284.