Travelers, merchants, and foreigners appeared in facial stucco sculptures in Dvaravati humans in Nakhon Pathom Province

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Supitchar Jindawattanaphum


This research article is part of the research on innovation in the face of Dvaravati people, a case study of stucco sculptures and antiques in the Dvaravati period by Adobe Photoshop. Nakhon Pathom, originally called `Nakhon Phra Krit,' was an ancient city which has the largest city plan of all ancient cities in the Dvaravati era. It was also a significant port situated in the western of Chao Phraya River, between Mae Klong River and Tha Chin River. There was a great number of antique evidence discovered. This also showed the evolution of the growth of Nakhon Pathom, the city of significant geographical landmarks and locations, which developed to be a large city since the 12th-century B.E.. This ancient city was a port city that had marine transportation connecting local communities such as Kamphaeng Saen, Phong Tuk, and Khu Bua, as well as communities not far from coastlines. Furthermore, there were also river pathways shipping from the Gulf of Thailand, through Pak Nam to Nakhon Pathom Ancient City. There was a discovery of Phanom Surin shipwreck, around a shrimp pond in Phanthai Norasing Sub-district of Samut Sakhon Province which was around 8 kilometers from the coastline and not far from Nakhon Pathom. The shipwreck was an ancient Arab boat shipping goods such as ivories, betel fruits, coconuts, rice seeds, antlers, and Tang dynasty porcelains. It could be assumed a ship of merchants which was consistent with the discovery of antique evidence in Nakhon Pathom Province such as beads, ancient coins, seals, and Tang dynasty porcelains. This evidence could ascertain the contact of merchants between this city and the Middle East, India, and China. Furthermore, from the antique study of facial stucco sculptures of humans in the Dvaravati period, these sculptures were created to decorate religious sites. A great number of antique evidence found at Wat Phra Prathon Chedi, Chulprathon Pagoda, and Wat Phra Pathom Chedi showed that those facial stucco sculptures had various facial characteristics, i.e., facial appearances, turbans, usage of facial embroideries, which were different from local Dvaravati citizens. These sculptures evidence the traveling of travelers, merchants, and foreigners who focused on seeking fortunes, trading, and propagating religions.

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Jindawattanaphum, S. . (2022). Travelers, merchants, and foreigners appeared in facial stucco sculptures in Dvaravati humans in Nakhon Pathom Province. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(4), 20–24. Retrieved from
Research Articles


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