The effect of drying methods on the characteristics and functional properties of Unripe Banana (Musa spp.) flour: Air drying, freeze drying and extrusion

Main Article Content

Onanong Naivikul
Aumaporn Arlai


The study aimed to investigate the properties of unripe banana flour (UBF) subjected to several drying processes, including air drying, freeze drying and extrusion, consider as a source of nutrients and a functional ingredient. The result showed that air and freeze drying did not alter morphology, crystallinity and properties of UBF as much as did extrusion. The UBF obtained through air and freeze drying had a higher resistant starch (69-72%) when comparing with the extrusion. Air and freeze drying increased the water holding capacity and viscosity of starch paste, but decreased its solubility, swelling capacity and browning. Extrusion induced a strong degradation of the starch molecules resulting in reduced granule crystallinity (0.14-0.34%), resistant starch (< 0.3%), final viscosity (49-82 cP) and setback values (32-46 cP). In contrast, increased swelling power, solubility and browning were obtained with the use of extrusion. The gelatinization temperatures (76-88 oC) and enthalpy of gelatinization (16-17 J/g) of UBF after drying with air or freeze drying while extrusion method exhibited the flour with lower gelatinization temperature (54-74 oC) and enthalpy of gelatinization (0.3 J/g). The results of this study may be useful in considering the UBF as a functional ingredient and a feasible drying procedure. The UBF obtained by air drying was economically viable than that obtained by freeze drying verify. Nevertheless, both procedures could provide the UBF as an ideal material to be used as functional thickening agent for starchy processed foods and also as resistant starch to lower digestion. Extruded UBF could be employed in a variety of instant drinks and processed foods aimed for consumption by children and elderly.

Article Details

How to Cite
Naivikul, O., & Arlai, A. (2022). The effect of drying methods on the characteristics and functional properties of Unripe Banana (Musa spp.) flour: Air drying, freeze drying and extrusion. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(2), 1–7. Retrieved from
Research Articles


T. M. Oyinloye, W. N. Yoon, Effects of freeze-drying on quality and grinding process of food produce: a review, Processes 8 (2020) 354.

C. Ratti, Hot air and freeze-drying of high-value foods- a review, Journal of Food Engineering 49 (2001) 311-319.

T. B. Tribess, J. P. Hernandez-Uribe, M. G. C Mendez-Montealvo, E. W. Menezes, L. A. Bello-Perez, C. C. Tadini, Thermal properties and resistant starch content of green banana flour (Musa cabendishii) produced at different drying conditions, LWT 42 (2009) 1022-1025.

J. Ahmed, L. Thomas, R. Khashawi, Influence of hot-air drying and freeze-drying on functional, rheological, structural and dielectric properties of green banana flour and dispersions, Food Hydrocolloids 99 (2020) 105331.

M. Maskan, A. Altan, Advances in food extrusion technology, 1st ed, Florida: Boca Raton, 2012, p. 412.

Y. V. Gracia-Tejeda, C. Lopez-Gonzalez, J. P. Perez-Orozco, R. Rendon-Villalobos, A. Jimenez-Perez, E. Flores-Huicochea, J. Solorza-Feria, C. D. Bastida, Physicochemical and mechanical properties of extruded laminates from native and oxidized banana starch during storage, LWT 54 (2013) 447-455.

Y. Bi, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, Y. Hong, Z. Gu, L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Li, Molecular structure and digestibility of banana flour and starch, Food Hydrocolloids 72 (2017) 215-227.

G. Giraldo-Gomes, S. Rodriguez-Barona, R. Sanabria-Gonzales, Preparation of instant green banana flour powders by an extrusion process, Powder Technology 353 (2019) 437-443.

L. Roman, M. Gomez, R. B. Hamaker, M. M. Martinez, Banana starch and molecular shear fragmentation dramatically increase structurally driven slowly digestible starch in fully gelatinized bread crumb. Food Chemistry 274 (2019) 664-671.

R. Ramirez- Cortes, L. A. Betto-Perez, R. A. Gonzalez-Soto, F. Gutierrez-Meraz, J. Alvarez Ramirez, Isolation of plantain starch on a large laboratory scale, Starch 68 (2016) 488-49.

C. Sarawong, R. Schoenlechner, K. Rsekiguchi, E. Berghofer, P. K. W. Ng, Effect of extrusion cooking on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch, phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of green banana flour, Food Chemistry 143 (2014) 33-39.

J. Pico, K. Xu, M. Guo, Z. Mohamedshah, M. G. Ferruzzi, M. M. Martinez, Manufacturing the ultimate green banana flour: impact of drying and extrusion on phenolic profile and starch bioaccessibility, Food Chemistry, 297 (2019) 124990.

Food and Agriculture Organization, Banana facts and figures. bananas/ bananafacts/ en/ #.X_r3ydIzbIU (access 15 January 2020 )

Food and Agriculture Organization, Banana statistical compendium 2019, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2020, p. 1.

A. A. Khoozani, B. Kebede, A. E. D. A. Bekhit, Rheology, textural and structural changes in dough and bread partially substituted with whole green banana flour, LWT 126 (2020) 109252.

E. Agama-Acevedo, J. J. Islas-Hernandez, G. Pacheco-Vargas, P. Osorio-Diaz, L. A. Bello-Perez, Starch digestibility and glycemic index of cookies partially substituted with unripe banana flour, LWT 46 (2012) 177-182.

P. S. Kumar, A. Saravanan, N. Sheeba, S. Uma, Structural, functional characterization and physicochemical properties of green banana flour from dessert and plantain bananas (Musa spp), LWT 116 (2019) 108524.

A. A. Khoozani, A. E. D. A. Bekhit, J. Birch, Effects of different drying condition on the starch content, thermal properties and some of the physicochemical parameters of whole green banana flour, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 30 (2019) 938-946.

D. R. Izidoro, M. Sierakowski, C. W. I. Haminiuk, C. F. de Souza, A. P. Scheer, Physical and chemical properties of ultrasonically, spray –dried green banana (Musa cavedish) starch, Journal of Food Engineering 104 (2011) 639-648.

C.V. Bezerra, E. R. Amante, D. C. Oliveira, A. M. C. Rodrigues, L. H. M. Silva, Green banana (Musa cavendishii) flour obtained in spouted bed-effect of drying on physic-chemical, functional and morphological characteristics of the starch, Industrial Crops and Products 41 (2013) 241-249.

A. S. Babu, M. Mahalakshmi, R, Parimalavalli, Comparative study on properties of banana flour, starch and autoclaved starch, Trends in carbohydrate research 6(1) (2014) 38-44.

Association of Office Analytical. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC international, 16th ed, Washinton DC: Association of Office Analytical, 2002.

American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the AACC, 8th ed., Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1990.

J. Ahmed, Effect of particle size and temperature on rheology and creep behavior of barley β-D-glucan concentrate dough, Carbohydrate Polymer 11 (2014) 89-100.

E. Palou, A. Lopez-Malo, G. V. Barbosa-Canovas, J. Welti-Chanes, B. G. Swanson. Polyphenol

oxidase activity and color of blanched and high hydrostatic pressure treated banana puree, Journal of Food Science 64(1) (1999) 42-45.

M. R. Melellan, L. Lind, R.W. Kime, Hue angle determinations and statistical analysis for multiquadrant hunter L, a, b data, Journal of Food Quality 18 (1995) 235-240.

L.Y. Teng, N. L. Chin, Y. A. Yusof, Rheological and textural studies of fresh and freeze-thawed native sago starch-sugar gels II. comparisons with other starch sources and reheating effects, Food Hydrocolloids 31 (2013) 156-165.

P. Nimsung, M. Thongngam, O. Naivikul, Compositions, Morphological and thermal properties of green banana flour and starch, Kasetsart Journal 41 (2007) 324-330.

B. Zhang, K. Wang, J. Hasjim, E. Li, B. M. Flanagan, M. J. Gidley, Freeze drying changes the structure and digestibility of ß-polymorphic starches, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62(7) (2014) 1482-1491.

L. Zheng, K. Guo, L. Lin, W. He, L. Zhang, C. Wei, Comparison of physicochemical properties of starches from flesh and peel of green banana fruit, Molecule 23 (2018) 2312.

K. O. Falade, S. A. Oyeyinka, Color, chemical and functional properties of plantain cultivar and cooking banana flour as affected by drying method and maturity, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39 (2015) 816-828.

T. Han, Y. Juan, Z. Jianwei, T. Yaoqi, J. Zhengyu, X. Xueming, Effects of multiple freezing/thawing cycles on the structural and functional properties of waxy rice starch, Journal of Food Science and Technology 10(5) (2015) 1371.

R. G. Utrilla-Coello, M. E. Rodriguez-Huezo, H. Carrillo-Navas, C. Hennandez-Jaimes, E. J. Vernon-Carter, J. Alvarez-Ramirez, In vitro digestibility, physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of banana starches, Carbohydrate Polymers 101 (2014) 154-162.

S. Pragati, I. Genitha, K, Ravish. Comparative study of ripe and unripe banana flour during storage, Journal of Food Processing and Technology 5(11) (2014) 1000384.

Y. Cahyana, E. Wijaya, T. S. Halimah, H. Marta, E. Suryadi, D. Kurniati, The effect of different thermal modifications on slowly digestible starch and physicochemical properties of green banana flour (Musa acuminate colla), Food Chemistry 274 (2019) 274-280.