The effect of drying methods on the characteristics and functional properties of Unripe Banana (Musa spp.) flour: Air drying, freeze drying and extrusion

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Onanong Naivikul
Aumaporn Arlai


The study aimed to investigate the properties of unripe banana flour (UBF) subjected to several drying processes, including air drying, freeze drying and extrusion, consider as a source of nutrients and a functional ingredient. The result showed that air and freeze drying did not alter morphology, crystallinity and properties of UBF as much as did extrusion. The UBF obtained through air and freeze drying had a higher resistant starch (69-72%) when comparing with the extrusion. Air and freeze drying increased the water holding capacity and viscosity of starch paste, but decreased its solubility, swelling capacity and browning. Extrusion induced a strong degradation of the starch molecules resulting in reduced granule crystallinity (0.14-0.34%), resistant starch (< 0.3%), final viscosity (49-82 cP) and setback values (32-46 cP). In contrast, increased swelling power, solubility and browning were obtained with the use of extrusion. The gelatinization temperatures (76-88 oC) and enthalpy of gelatinization (16-17 J/g) of UBF after drying with air or freeze drying while extrusion method exhibited the flour with lower gelatinization temperature (54-74 oC) and enthalpy of gelatinization (0.3 J/g). The results of this study may be useful in considering the UBF as a functional ingredient and a feasible drying procedure. The UBF obtained by air drying was economically viable than that obtained by freeze drying verify. Nevertheless, both procedures could provide the UBF as an ideal material to be used as functional thickening agent for starchy processed foods and also as resistant starch to lower digestion. Extruded UBF could be employed in a variety of instant drinks and processed foods aimed for consumption by children and elderly.


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Naivikul, O., & Arlai, A. (2022). The effect of drying methods on the characteristics and functional properties of Unripe Banana (Musa spp.) flour: Air drying, freeze drying and extrusion. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(2), 1–7. Retrieved from
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