Mapping the gender gaps in TVET practices: A literature review

Main Article Content

Jess Mark Alinea

Abstract

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is the formal or informal education and training process centered on acquiring practical or technical skills to improve workplace learning and develop an individual's occupational abilities. However, there are non-inclusive practices in gender in the TVET fields. This study coined them as the gender gaps. This study aims to review various literature on the TVET practices to map the gender gaps. In addition, solutions to bridge the gaps were also identified in the literature. Pieces of literature were reviewed and inductive thematic analysis was conducted with MAXQDA resulting in major themes. For gender gaps, the major themes are gender stereotyping: challenges to inclusivity, culture as factors of gender discrimination, and parenting styles influencing career choices. Policy and guidelines towards equal TVET access and practice, internship and career programs as industry pathways, and community support system towards gender inclusivity are the emerging themes to bridge those gaps. The results of this study may provide insights into the understanding of the gender gaps that may be helpful in the development of inclusive policies and guidelines in the TVET system. Further, this study recommends further inquiry into the gender literature of TVET since there is a limited number of readings available in the field. With the changing and updating nature of the industry, further study on the same nature should be pursued to keep TVET institutions gender-sensitive and gender-responsive.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Alinea, J. M. (2022). Mapping the gender gaps in TVET practices: A literature review. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 17(2), 47–53. Retrieved from https://ph02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jtir/article/view/245941
Section
Academic Articles

References

UNESCO (2003). Technical and vocational education for the 21st century. UNESCO Recommendation, Paris: Author.

M. Pavlona, TVET as an important factor in country's economic development. Springer Plus 3 (Suppl1) K3 (2014) 1- 2.

N. A. Pongo, B. Effah, B. Osei-Owusu, E. Obinnim, F. K. Sam,. The impact of TVET on Ghana's socio-economic development: a case study of ICCES TVET skills in two regions of Ghana, American International Journal of Contemporary Research 4(1) (2014) 185 - 192.

S. McGrath, J. Alla-Mensah, M. Langthaler, Skills for decent work, life and sustainable development: vocational education and sustainable goals, Vienna: Australian Foundation for Development Research, (2018).

Paryono, The importance of TVET and its contribution to sustainable development, AIP Conference Proceedings 1887 (2017) 020076.

J. E. Edokpolor, R. O. Owenvbiugie, Technical and vocational education and training skills: an antidote for job creation and sustainable development of Nigerian economy, Problems of Education in the 21st Century 75(6) 2017) 535 - 549.

J. M. Pregoner, L. Cansico, F. Escandor, E. Encabo, Gender bias in technical vocational livelihood program: a qualitative study on the experience of male students in home economics strand (2020).

M. P. Sevilla, Gender differences production in secondary technical vocational education, Pensamiento Educativo, Revista de Investigacion Educacional Latinoamericana 56(1) (2019) 1-17.

R. B. Mustapha, A. Zaharim, N. L. Long, F. Mohd, Women and skills training: gender imparity in technical fields, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (2013).

A. Masinire, Teachers' perceptions and students' lived experiences in Vocational-Technical subjects in a rural high school in Zimbabwe, Gender and Education 27(6) (2015) 618-634. doi:10.1080/09540253.2015.1079357

UNESCO, Women must be fully engaged in technical and Vocational Education and Training, https://en.unesco.org/news/women-must-be-fully-engaged-technical-and-vocational-education-and-training (2016)

UNESCO, Promoting gender equality in STEM-related TVET, International Center for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, https://unevoc.unesco.org/home/Gender_STEM_Workshop (2021)

UNESCO-UNEVOC, Advancing innovation, UNESCO-UNEVOC in action, Biennial Report 2018-2019, https://unevoc.unesco.org/pub/ biennialreport_2018-20192.pdf (2020)

G. M. Alam, The role of technical and vocational education in the national development of Bangladesh, Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education 9 (1) (2008) 25 - 44.

Ali, Idris, R. R. Muhammad, Females enrolment in technical and vocational education in Kano state-Nigeria, 5th International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkia University. (2013)

A. Williams, C. M. Becky, A. T. Theophilus, Challenges of women in technical and vocational education: A case study of federal college of education (technical), Gusau, International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education 10(1) (2018) 7 - 13.

V. Braun, V. Clarke, Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology 3(2) (2006) 77 - 101. doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

H. Snyder, Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research 104 (2019) 333 - 339. doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039

R. Handa, U. R. Rao, J. F. Lewis, G. Rambhad, S. Shiff, C. J. Ghia, Literature review of rheumatoid arthritis in India, International journal of rheumatic diseases 19(5) (2016) 440 -- 451. doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.12621

H. Gray, Gender Equity in TVET, World Youth Conference - UNESCO, UNEVOC, http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/wysd/ppt/WYSD16-Gender-Equity-in-TVET_Henry-Gray.pdf

Igbe SOU, Cultural Evolution and Next-of-Kin in Benin Kingdom, In Imogie, A.O. (Ed) Gender and Next-of-Kin in Cross-Cultural Perspective, 2007.

A. C. Egun, E. U. Tibi, The gender gap in vocational education: Increasing girls access in the 21st century in the midwestern states of Nigeria, International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education 2(2) (2010) 18 - 21.

E. Ginzberg, Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement, Vocational Guidance Quarterly 20(3) (1972) 169-176.

N. Bagshaw, Voices from the front line, THISDAY 26th November, (2006).

Y. Rodgers, J. E. Zveglich, L. Wherry, Gender differences in vocational school training and earnings premiums in Taiwan. Feminist Economics 12(4) (2006) 527 - 560. doi.org/10.1080/13545700600885313

I. D. A. Nurhaeni, Y. Kurniawan, Gender-mainstreaming in technical and vocational education and training, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 306 (2018) 012057.

J. L. Holland, Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environment, Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1985.

C. S. Fawcett, S. Howden, Gender issues in technical training and vocational education programs, Washington, D.C: Inter-American Development Bank, 1998.

K. Hegna, Conflicts, competition and social support in female-dominated vocational education-breaking or reaffirming stereotypical femininity?, Journal of Vocational Education & Training 69(2) (2017) 196 - 213. doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2017.1303783

ILO, Jamaica has the highest percentage of women managers globally, http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Jamaica-has-highest-percentage-of-women-managers-globally---ILO-report, 2015.

Irish Aid, Why Gender Equality Matters? https://www.irishaid.ie/what-we-do/our-priority-areas/gender-equality/gender-overview/ (2015).

USAID Lebanon Gender analysis of technical and vocational education and training in Lebanon, USAID.gov, https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf _docs/pa00n418.pdf (2017).