Methodological Framework for Evaluating Cost-Effective Energy and Climate Measures in Building Clusters

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Suparatchai Vorarat
Watcharapong Tantawat
Prayuth Rittidatch
Aumnad Phdungsilp


Building renovation and energy-efficient retrofitting is a growing concern in many building stocks to improve the energy performance and energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. This paper aims to present the methodological framework for energy and climate change mitigation planning in building clusters. The proposed methodology includes building energy modeling and marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve. It enables to simulate building energy use and GHG emissions associated with energy retrofit measures (ERMs) and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness. The relationship between the cost and emission reduction potentials is presented in terms of a MAC curve. Using a case study of an educational building in Bangkok, Thailand, the energy performance of four ERMs was simulated and a MAC curve was constructed. Findings showed that the baseline emissions are 310 tCO2e and total emissions from implementing four ERMs are 250.64 tCO2e. The improvement of air-conditioning systems contributed the largest share of mitigation potential and was followed by measures relating to building envelopes, building energy management systems, and lighting. On the cost-effectiveness, switching to efficient lighting showed the highest cost-savings of 84.59 US$ per tCO2e. Other ERMs delivered the cost-savings from 50 to 63 US$ per tCO2e. The proposed methodological framework would support the decision-making for the implementation of energy and climate planning at various scales from an individual building to an urban area.

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Vorarat, S., Tantawat, W., Rittidatch, P., & Phdungsilp, A. (2023). Methodological Framework for Evaluating Cost-Effective Energy and Climate Measures in Building Clusters. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 18(5). Retrieved from
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