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Manganese contamination causes problem for water consumption. This research aims to investigate manganese removal using entrapped microbial cells. The influence of an activated carbon content and a microbial cell density in entrapment material on manganese removal was focused. Streptomyces violarus strain SBP1 (a biological manganese-oxidizing bacterium) and barium alginate supplemented with powdered activated carbon (entrapment material) were chosen. The experiment divided into 3 parts, including 1) manganese removal by barium alginate supplemented with powdered activated carbon (1, 5, and 10%, w/v), 2) manganese removal by the powdered activated carbon-barium alginate-entrapped cells at different microbial cell densities (100, 200, and 500 mg/L), and 3) entrapped cell micro-structural investigation using scanning electron microscope. The result showed that microbial cell density and powdered activated carbon supplement obviously affected manganese removal efficiency. Barium alginate with 5% powdered activated carbon supplement provided the highest manganese removal (42%). The powdered activated carbon-barium alginate-entrapped cells at microbial cell density of 200 mg/L gave the best manganese removal (51%). Micro-structural observation showed that powdered activated carbon and microbial cells distributed over the material. These results could be used as a fundamental information for entrapped cell application for water treatment system in the future.
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